We propose an algorithm for ice fissure identification and detection using u-net network, which can realize the automatic detection of ice fissures of Typical Glaciers in Greenland ice sheet. Based on the data of sentinel-1 IW from July and August every year, in order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR image, the probabilistic patch based weights (ppb) algorithm is selected for filtering, and then the representative samples are selected and input into the u-net network for model training, and the ice cracks are predicted according to the trained model. Taking two typical glaciers in Greenland (Jakobshavn and Kangerdlussuaq) as examples, the average accuracy of classification results can reach 94.5%, of which the local accuracy of fissure area can reach 78.6%, and the recall rate is 89.4%.
The dataset contains microbial amplicon sequencing data from a total of 269 ice samples collected from 15 glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau from November 2016 to August 2020, including 24K Glacier (24K), Dongkemadi Glacier (DKMD), Dunde Glacier (DD), Jiemayangzong Glacier (JMYZ), Kuoqionggangri Glacier (KQGR), Laigu Glacier (LG), Palung 4 Glacier (PL4), Qiangtang 1 Glacier (QT), Qiangyong Glacier (QY), Quma Glacier (QM), Tanggula Glacier (TGL), Xiagangjiang Glacier (XGJ), Yala Glacier (YA), Zepugou Glacier (ZPG), ZhufengDongrongbu Glacier (ZF). The sampling areas ranged in latitude and longitude from 28.020°N to 38.100°N and 86.28°E to 95.651°E. The 16s rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 515F/907R (or 515F/806R) primers and sequenced with the Illumina Hiseq2500 sequencing platform to obtain raw data. The selected primer sequences were "515F_GTGYCAGCMGCCGCGGTAA; 907R_CCGTCAATTCMTTTRAGTTT" "515F_GTGCCAGCMGCCGCGG; 806R_ GGACTACHVGGGTWTCTAAT". The uploaded data include: sample number, sample description, sampling time, latitude and longitude coordinates, sample type, sequencing target, sequencing fragment, sequencing primer, sequencing platform, data format and other basic information. The sequencing data are stored in sequence file data format forward *.1.fq.gz and reverse *.2.fq.gz compressed files.
Glacier thickness is the vertical distance between the glacier surface and the glacier bottom. The distribution of glacier thickness is not only controlled by glacier scale and subglacial topography, but also varies with different stages of glacier response to climate. The data include longitude and latitude, elevation, single point thickness, total ice reserves and instrument type of glacier survey line. The glacier thickness mainly comes from drilling and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The drilling method is to drill holes on the ice surface to the bedrock under the ice, so as to obtain the thickness of the glacier at a single point; Glacier radar thickness measurement technology can accurately measure the continuous distribution of glacier thickness on the survey line, and obtain the topographic characteristics of subglacial bedrock, so as to provide necessary parameters for the estimation of glacier reserves and the study of glacier dynamics The accuracy of glacier drilling data reaches decimeter level. The accuracy of thickness measurement by GPR radar is between 5% and 15% in theory due to the difference of glacier properties and radar signal strength of bottom interface. Glacier thickness is a prerequisite for obtaining information of subglacial topography and glacier reserves. In the numerical simulation and model study of glacier dynamics, glacier thickness is an important basic input parameter. At the same time, glacier reserve is the most direct parameter to characterize glacier scale and glacier water resources. It is not only very important for accurate assessment, reasonable planning and effective utilization of glacier water resources, but also has important and far-reaching significance for regional socio-economic development and ecological security.
Qiangyong glacier: 90.23 °E, 28.88° N, 4898 m asl. The surface is bedrock. The record contains data of 1.5 m temperature, 1.5 m humidity, 2 m wind speed, 2 m wind orientation, surface temperature, etc. Data from the automated weather station was collected using USB equipment at 19:10 on August 6, 2019, with a recording interval of 10 minutes, and data was downloaded on December 20, 2020. There is no missing data but a problem with the wind speed data after 9:30 on July 14, 2020 (most likely due to damage to the wind vane). Jiagang glacier: 88.69°E, 30.82°N, 5362 m asl. The surface is rubble and weeds. The records include 1.5 meters of temperature, 1.5 meters of humidity, 2 meters of wind speed, 2 meters of wind direction, surface temperature, etc. The initial recording time is 15:00 on August 9, 2019, and the recording interval is 1 minute. The power supply is mainly maintained by batteries and solar panels. The automatic weather station has no internal storage. The data is uploaded to the Hobo website via GPRS every hour and downloaded regularly. At 23:34 on January 5, 2020, the 1.5 meter temperature and humidity sensor was abnormal, and the temperature and humidity data were lost. The data acquisition instrument will be retrieved on December 19, 2020 and downloaded to 19:43 on June 23, 2020 and 3:36 on September 25, 2020. Then the temperature and humidity sensors were replaced, and the observations resumed at 12:27 on December 21. The current data consists of three segments (2019.8.9-2020.6.30; 2020.6.23-2020.9.25; 2020.12.19-2020.12.29), Some data are missing after inspection. Some data are duplicated in time due to recording battery voltage, which needs to be checked. The meteorological observation data at the front end of Jiagang mountain glacier are collected by the automatic weather station Hobo rx3004-00-01 of onset company. The model of temperature and humidity probe is s-thb-m002, the model of wind speed and direction sensor is s-wset-b, and the model of ground temperature sensor is s-tmb-m006. The meteorological observation data at the front end of Jianyong glacier are collected by the US onset Hobo u21-usb automatic weather station. The temperature and humidity probe model is s-thb-m002, the wind speed and direction sensor model is s-wset-b, and the ground temperature sensor model is s-tmb-m006.
The DEMs of the typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were provided by the bistatic InSAR method. The data were collected on November 21, 2013. It covered Puruogangri and west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 10 meters, and an elevation accuracy of 0.8 m which met the requirements of national 1:10 000 topographic mapping. Considering the characteristics of the bistatic InSAR in terms of imaging geometry and phase unwrapping, based on the TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data, and adopting the improved SAR interference processing method, the surface DEMs of the two typical glaciers above were generated with high resolution and precision. The data set was in GeoTIFF format, and each typical glacial DEM was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Surface DEMs for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.
From 2013 to 2014, the Glacial Geomorphology of the upper reaches of Heihe River in the late Quaternary was investigated and sampled. Based on the field investigation and remote sensing image, the distribution map of moraine at different levels near the ridge of the upper reaches of the Bailang river was obtained.
Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of Chinese Cryospheric data. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, to provide parameters and validation data for the development of response and feedback model of frozen soil, glacier and snow cover to global change under GIS framework; on the other hand, it is to systemically sort out and rescue valuable cryospheric data, to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and division for it Analysis tools. The basic datasets of the Tibet Plateau mainly takes the Tibetan Plateau as the research region, ranging from longitude 70 -- 105 ° east and latitude 20 -- 40 ° north, containing the following types of data: 1. Cryosphere data. Includes: Permafrost type (Frozengd), (Fromap); Snow depth distribution (Snowdpt) Quatgla (Quatgla) 2. Natural environment and resources. Includes: Terrain: elevation, elevation zoning, slope, slope direction (DEM); Hydrology: surface water (Stram_line), (Lake); Basic geology: Quatgeo, Hydrogeo; Surface properties: Vegetat; 4. Climate data: temperature, surface temperature, and precipitation. 3. Socio-economic resources (Stations) : distribution of meteorological Stations on the Tibetan Plateau and it surrounding areas. 4. Response model of plateau permafrost to global change (named "Fgmodel"): permafrost distribution data in 2009, 2049 and 2099 were projected. Please refer to the following documents (in Chinese): "Design of Chinese Cryospheric Information System.doc", "Datasheet of Chinese Cryospheric Information System.DOC", "Database of the Tibetan Plateau.DOC" and "Database of the Tibetan Plateau 2.DOC".
The compilation basis of frozen soil map includes: (1) frozen soil field survey, exploration and measurement data; (2) aerial photo and satellite image interpretation; (3) topo300 1km resolution ground elevation data; (4) temperature and ground temperature data. Among them, the distribution of permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau adopts the research results of nanzhuo Tong et al. (2002). Using the measured annual average ground temperature data of 76 boreholes along the Qinghai Tibet highway, regression statistical analysis is carried out to obtain the relationship between the annual average ground temperature and latitude, elevation, and based on this relationship, combined with the gtopo30 elevation data (developed under the leadership of the center for earth resources observation and science and technology, USGS) Global 1 km DEM data) to simulate the annual mean ground temperature distribution over the whole Tibetan Plateau. Taking the annual average ground temperature of 0.5 ℃ as the boundary between permafrost and seasonal permafrost, the boundary between discontinuous Permafrost on the plateau and island Permafrost on the plateau is delimited by referring to the map of ice and snow permafrost in China (1:4 million) (Shi Yafeng et al., 1988); in addition, the division map of Permafrost on the big and small Xing'an Mountains in the Northeast (Guo Dongxin et al., 1981), the distribution map of permafrost and underground ice around the Arctic (b According to rown et al. 1997) and the latest field survey data, the Permafrost Boundary in Northeast China has been revised; the Permafrost Boundary in Northwest mountains mostly uses the boundary defined in the map of ice and snow permafrost in China (1:4 million) (Shi Yafeng et al., 1988). According to the data, the area of permafrost in China is about 1.75 × 106km2, accounting for about 18.25% of China's territory. Among them, alpine permafrost is 0.29 × 106km2, accounting for about 3.03% of China's territory. For more information, please refer to the specification of "1:4 million map of glacial and frozen deserts in China" (Institute of environment and Engineering in cold and dry areas, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006)
"Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological comprehensive atlas" is supported by the key project of Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological process integration research. It aims at data arrangement and service of Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological process integration research. The atlas will provide researchers with a comprehensive and detailed background introduction and basic data set of Heihe River Basin. The desert (sand land) and glacier map of Heihe River Basin is one of the land surface part of the atlas, with scale of 1:2500000, positive axis isometric conic projection and standard latitude of 25 47 n. Data source: Glacier distribution data of Heihe River Basin Based on the first glacial catalogue, desert (sand) distribution data of 1:100000 Heihe River Basin, road data of 2010 Heihe River Basin, administrative boundary data of 1 million Heihe River Basin in 2008, residential area data of 2009 Heihe River Basin, and 100000 river flow data in 2009.