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Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS

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Elaborate boundaries of Chinese major deserts (2013)
  • 2019-08-09
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The major deserts in China include the Taklamakan Desert, Gurban Tunggut Desert, Qaidam Desert, Kumtag Desert, Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, Ulan Buh Desert, Hobq Desert, MU US Desert, Hunshandake Desert, Hulunbuir Sands, and Horqin Sands. All the desert boundaries were derived from Google Earth Pro® via manual interpretation. We delineated the desert boundaries using the Digital Global Feature Imagery and SpotImage collections of Google Earth Pro®, whose spatial resolution is finer than 30 m. The acquisition time of most images was in 2013. The dataset could provide study reference for the science community of desert sciences.

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Dune-types of Chinese major deserts (2001-2015)
  • 2019-07-24
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According to ecological indicator, the dune-type is classified into mobile dune, semifixed dune and fixed dune. Vegetation cover is one of the most common indicators of dune type. We classified the dunes into mobile, semifixed, and fixed dunes according to the vegetation percentage (the percent tree cover plus the percent nontree vegetation) from 0 to 10, 10 to 30, and 30 to 100. The data used herein for dune-type classification was the MODIS Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) product (MOD44B collection 6) with a spatial resolution of 231.656 m, time span was from 2001 to 2015, study area was Chinese major deserts, please see the Elaborate boundary of Chinese major deserts (2013). The dataset could provide study reference for the science community of desert sciences.

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The Hypocentre Parameters of Shallow-focus Earthquakes in the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau Area (1991-2014)
  • 2019-05-10
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The data set describes the hypocentre parameters of shallow-focus earthquakes that occurred in the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau area from 1990 to 2014. Accurate seismic focal depth and focal mechanism solutions can provide an elementary scientific basis for deep Earth deformation and seismogenic structure research. The seismic waveform data are from the IRIS website (http://ds.iris.edu/wilber3/find_event). Teleseismic waveform fitting is used in processing data. The focal depth error is ±3 km. Earthquake number: earthquake number ID for different areas in chronological order Origin Time: mm/dd/yyyy (month/day/year), hh:mm (hour/minute) Earthquake location: longitude, latitude, depth Earthquake magnitude: moment magnitude (Mw) Focal mechanism solution: trend / inclination / inclination angle (strike / dip / slip) Error: the least squares method is used to determine the variance between the theoretical waveform and the observed waveform (misfit) Moho Depth: Moho

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The Statistics of Natural Disasters in Tibet Autonomous Region (1950-2002)
  • 2019-04-25
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This data set contains information on natural disasters in Tibet of nearly 50 years, including the time, place and the consequences of natural disasters such as drought, snows disasters, frost hazards, hail, floods, gales, and lightning disasters. Tibet is located on the southwest border of China and is the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. Due to the influence of the westerly winds, weather and strong warm and wet air currents from the Indian Ocean, the dry and wet seasons are obvious. In addition, the mountains and forests are numerous, and the terrain is complex in Tibet, which makes Tibet among those regions in China having the highest frequencies of natural disasters. The main meteorological disasters that cause significant damage to the production of agriculture and animal husbandry in Tibet are snows disasters, frost hazards, hail, floods and gales. According to incomplete statistics, the average annual disaster area from 1982 to 2000 was 28,440 hectares, of which the disaster area in 1983 was the largest, 203,700 hectares, followed by 1995 with a disaster area of 133,300 hectares. From the proportions of various disaster areas in the total area affected by the disasters, the proportion under drought is the largest, reaching 38%, followed by that under diseases and insect pests, which was 25%. Tibet is sparsely populated, and the ecological environment is very fragile. Traditional farming and animal husbandry production basically relies on people. Various meteorological disasters have caused heavy losses to the lives and property of the Tibetan people. Snow disasters topped the list of various meteorological disasters in Tibet. Tibet is one of the five largest pastoral areas in the country, and livestock is the most important source of production and livelihood for herdsmen. Snow disasters often cause large numbers of livestock death, significant property losses to herdsmen and threat to their lives. The data are extracted from the Tibet Volume of Chinese Meteorological Disaster Dictionary, with manual entry, summarizing and proofreading.

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Data on the Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Total Suspended Particulate in the Atmosphere at a Station in Southeast Tibet (2008-2011)
  • 2019-04-25
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This data set contains data on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total suspended particulate (TSP) in the atmosphere at a station in southeastern Tibet (Lulang). The samples were collected using an atmospheric active sampler equipped with a tandem fibreglass membrane-polyurethane foam sampling head. The gaseous POPs and TSPs were collected. The sampling period for each sample was 2 weeks. The types of observed POPs include organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only gaseous concentrations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, while both gaseous concentrations and particulate concentrations were detected for PAHs. All of the data contained in the data set are measurement data. The samples were collected in the field at the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Alpine Environment in Southeast Tibet. The sampler was an atmospheric flow active sampler equipped with a tandem fibreglass membrane-polyurethane foam sampling head, in which the fibreglass membrane was used to collect TSPs and the polyurethane foam was used to adsorb gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. During the sampling period, the sampler was run every other day for approximately 24 hours each time, and each sample was collected for 2 weeks. The atmospheric volume collected for each sample was 500-700 cubic metres. Both gaseous and particulate POP samples were prepared and analysed in the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, CAS. The sample preparation steps included Soxhlet extraction, silica-alumina column purification, removal of macromolecular impurities by a GPC column, concentration to a defined volume, etc. The analytical test instrument was a gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometer (Finnigan-TRACE GC/PolarisQ) produced by Thermo Fisher Scientific. The column used to separate OCPs and PCBs was a CP-Sil 8CB capillary column (50 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm), and the column used to separate PAHs was a DB-5MS capillary column (60 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm). The total suspended particulate concentration in the atmosphere was determined by the gravimetric method, and the accuracy of the weighing balance was 1/100,000 g. The field samples were subjected to strict quality control with laboratory blanks and field blanks. The detection limit of a given compound was 3 times the standard deviation of the concentration of the corresponding compound in the field blank; if the compound was not detected in the field blank, the detection limit of the method was determined by the lowest concentration of the working curve. For a sample, concentrations above the detection limit of the method are corrected by subtracting the detection limit; concentrations below the detection limit of the method but higher than 1/2 times the detection limit are corrected by subtracting half the method detection limit; and concentrations below 1/2 times the detection limit are considered undetected. The recovery rate of PAH laboratory samples was between 65-120%, and that of OCPs was between 70-130%; the sample concentrations were not corrected by the recovery rate. In the table, undetected data are marked as BDL; data marked in black italics are data corrected by subtracting 1/2 the method detection limit.

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The Hypocentre Parameters of Intermediate- and Deep-focus Earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush Region (1964-2011)
  • 2019-04-22
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The data set describes the hypocentre parameters of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region from 1964 to 2011. The earthquake relocation results clarified the complex deformation characteristics of underground structures in the deep subduction area in the Pamir-Xindu Kush region. The seismic waveform data are from the IRIS website (http://ds.iris.edu/wilber3/find_event), and the arrival time data are from the ISC website (http://www.isc.ac.uk/) and the CEDC website (http:// Data.earthquake.cn/data/index.jsp?id=11number=9). Seismic location was determined using the teleseismic waveform fitting and the multi-scale double-difference (Multi-DD) method developed in this study. The errors in latitude and longitude data are approximately ±7 km and ±7 km, respectively. Origin Time: yyyy (year), mm (month), dd (day), hh (hour), mm (minute), ss.ss (second) Earthquake Magnitude: Magnitude (from the ISC seismic catalogue) Earthquake Location: Latitude, Longitude, Depth Hypocentre determination method: Hypocentres marked with an "F" were determined by the waveform fitting method

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The Concentration Data Set of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere, Lake Water and Fish Bodies in Namco (2012-2014)
  • 2019-04-20
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The concentration data set of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere, lake water and fish bodies in Namco from 2012 to 2014 includes concentration time series of atmospheric gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), atmospheric gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), atmospheric particulate PAHs, dissolved persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in lake water, POPs in suspended particles of lake water and POPs in bodies of Gymnocypris namensis. The contents of the data set are all measured data. (1) The atmospheric samples were collected from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Multisphere in Namco by the atmospheric active sampler. The flow rate of the sampler is 60 L min-1, which collects data every other day. One sample is generated every half month, and the sampling volume is approximately 600 m³. Each sample includes a glass fiber filter (GFF, 0.45 μm, Whatman) that adsorbs particulate POPs and a polyurethane foam (PUF, 7.5 x 6 cm) that collects gaseous POPs. (2) Fifteen sampling points were selected along Namco to collect surface lake water samples at a water depth of 0-1 m and with a volume of 200 L. The total suspended particulates are obtained by filtering the water samples with a 0.7 μm GFF membrane, and then the dissolved POPs in the water are collected using a solid phase extraction column packed with XAD-2. (3) Gymnocypris namensis is the most widely distributed fish in Namco. A total of 35 samples of different sizes were collected, and the concentration of POPs in the back muscle samples was analyzed. Each medium sample was prepared and analyzed by the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes of CAS. The sample preparation steps include Soxhlet extraction, silica-alumina column purification, removal of macromolecular impurities by a GPC column, concentration and constant volume. The analytical test instrument was a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, Finnigan-Trace GC/PolarisQ) manufactured by American Thermoelectric Corporation. The column separating OCPs and PCBs was a CP-Sil 8CB capillary column (50 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm), and the column separating PAHs was a DB-5MS capillary column (60 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm). Sampling and laboratory analysis procedures followed strict quality control measures with lab blanks and field blanks. The detection limit of the compound is the average of the concentration of the corresponding compound in the field blank plus 3 times the standard deviation; if the compound is not detected in the field blank, the signal-to-noise ratio, 10 times the lowest concentration of the working curve, will be considered as the detection limit. Data below the detection limit are considered undetected and labeled as BDL; data marked in italics are detected by 1/2 times the detection limit. The recovery of PAHs is between 65% and 92%, the recovery of OCPs is between 64% and 112%, and the sample concentration is not corrected using recovery.

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The Statistics of Natural Disasters in Qinghai (1950-2000)
  • 2019-04-18
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This data set contains information on natural disasters in Qinghai over nearly 50 years, including the times, places and the consequences of natural disasters such as droughts, floods, hail, continuous rain, snow disasters, cold waves and strong temperature drops, low temperature freezing injuries, gales and sandstorms, pest plagues, rats, and geological disasters. Qinghai Province is located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau and has a total area of 720,000 square kilometers. Numerous rivers, glaciers and lakes lie in the province. Because two mother rivers of the Chinese nation, the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and the famous international river—the Lancang River—originated here, it is known as the "Chinese Water Tower"; there are 335,000 square meters of available grasslands in the province, and the natural pasture area ranks fourth in the country after those of Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang. There are various types of grasslands, abundant grassland resources, and 113 families, 564 genera and 2100 species of vascular plants, which grow and develop under the unique climatic condition of the Tibetan Plateau and strongly represent the characteristics of the plateau ecological environment. As the main part of the Tibetan Plateau, Qinghai Province is one of the centers of the formation and evolution of biological species in China. It is also a sensitive area and fragile zone for the study of climate and ecological environment in the international field of sciences and technology. The terrain and land-forms in Qinghai are complex, with interlaced mountains, valleys and basins, widely distributed snow and glaciers, the Gobi and other deserts and grassland. Complex terrain conditions, high altitudes and harsh climatic conditions make Qinghai a province with frequent meteorological disasters. The main meteorological disasters include droughts, floods, hail, continuous rain, snow disasters, cold waves and strong temperature drops, low temperature freezing injuries, gales and sandstorms. The data are extracted from the Qinghai Volume of Chinese Meteorological Disaster Dictionary, with manual entry, summarizing and proofreading.

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