HiWATER:Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (Dashalong automatic meteorological station, 2013)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Hydrometeorological observation network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dashalong station between 11 August, 2013, and 31 December, 2013. The site (98.941° E, 38.840° N) was located on a swamp meadow surface in the Longshatan, which is near west of Qilian county, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3739 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45C; 5 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (010C/020C; 10 m, north), air pressure (PTB110; in the tamper box on the ground), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), and soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m; RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. Data during 21 December, 2013 and 31 December, 2013 were missing because of power supply; the radiation data were missing before 26 September, 2013 due to the wiring problem. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2013-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Dashalong station, 2017)

This data set contains the eddy correlation-meter observation data from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017 at the upper reaches of the heihe hydrometeorological observation network.The station is located in qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 98.9406e, 38.8399N and 3739 m above sea level.The frame of the vortex correlator is 4.5m high, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature meter (CSAT3) and CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500, replaced with Li7500RS in April 2017) is 15cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Suspicious data caused by instrument drift, etc., shall be marked in red font.The eddy current system Li7500 was calibrated from April 13 to 15, and the collector's data storage problem occurred from July 8 to 12, resulting in missing data.When 10Hz data is missing due to a problem with the memory card storage data, the data is replaced by the 30min flux data output by the collector. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), Mr. Hoff length L (m), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Dashalong station, 2016)

This data set contains the observation data of vorticity correlativity at da-sharon station, upstream of heihe hydrometeorological observation network, from January 27, 2016 to December 31, 2016.The station is located in qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 98.9406e, 38.8399N and 3739 m above sea level.The rack height of the vortex correlativity meter is 4.5m, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature meter (CSAT3) and CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Suspicious data caused by instrument drift, etc., shall be marked in red font.Calibration of Li7500 in May 2-3, data missing;When 10Hz data is missing due to a problem with the storage card (3.20-5.01), the data will be replaced by 30min flux data output by the collector. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), Mr. Hoff length L (m), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Dashalong station, 2015)

This data set contains the observation data of vorticity correlation-meter at the upper reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network from January 1, 2015 to December 25, 2015.The station is located in qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 98.9406e, 38.8399N and 3739 m above sea level.The rack height of the vortex correlativity meter is 4.5m, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature meter (CSAT3) and CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Suspicious data caused by instrument drift, etc., shall be marked in red font.Calibration of the eddy current system Li7500 from April 16 to 18, with data missing;Abnormal CO2 concentration occurred after September 23, resulting in an error in CO2 flux.When 10Hz data is missing due to a problem with the memory card storage data (1.8-3.8,7.23-9.13), the data will be replaced by the 30-min flux data output by the collector. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), Mr. Hoff length L (m), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Dashalong station, 2014)

This data set contains the observation data of vorticity correlation-meter at da-sharon station, upstream of heihe hydrometeorological observation network, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014.The station is located in qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 98.9406e, 38.8399N and 3739 m above sea level.The rack height of the vortex correlativity meter is 4.5m, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature meter (CSAT3) and CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Suspicious data caused by instrument drift, etc., shall be marked in red font.After October 20, 10Hz data was missing due to the data storage problem of the memory card, which was replaced by 30min flux data output by the collector. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), stability Z/L (dimensionless), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al.(2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al.(2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Dashalong station, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Dashalong station eddy covariance system (EC) in the upper reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 12 August to 31 December, 2013. The site (98.941° E, 38.840° N) was located in the swamp meadow, Qilian County in Qilian Province. The elevation is 3739 m. The EC was installed at a height of 4.5 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3 & Li7500) was 0.15 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), representing high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of differential GPS in the middle and upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin (2012)

The purpose of differential GPS positioning survey is to unify multiple survey areas into the same coordinate system and realize accurate absolute positioning through joint survey with national high-level control point coordinates. Under the national geodetic coordinate system of 2000, the accurate positioning of flux observation matrix, hulugou small watershed, tianmuchi small watershed and dayokou watershed and target is completed. In order to realize the geometric correction and absolute positioning of optical image, SAR image and airborne lidar data, the layout of ground control points and high-precision measurement are completed. In the middle reaches of the area, one national high-level control point is jointly surveyed in the five directions of East, South, West, North and middle. Measuring instrument: There are 3 sets of triple R8 GNSS system. Measurement principle: For the control network encryption point, it is connected with the high-level known points in four quadrants around the survey area and distributed evenly in the survey area. For the ground control point (GCP), the obvious characteristic points (such as house corner, road intersection, inflection point, etc.) of the ground layout target and the independent ground objects are adopted and evenly distributed in the survey area. For the ground points with high accuracy requirements, the principle of average value of multiple (at least three) measurements is adopted. Measurement method: In the test area, the control network is encrypted, and GPS static measurement and national high-level control network are used for joint measurement and calculation. During measurement, multiple GPS receivers conduct static synchronous observation at different stations, and the observation time is strictly in accordance with the control network measurement specifications. The ground points in the test area are accurately located. GPS-RTK positioning technology is used and the national high-level control points are used to calibrate to the local coordinate system. When the mobile station obtains the fixed solution during the coordinate acquisition, the measurement is carried out again and the single measurement lasts for 5S. Measuring position: (1) Flux observation matrix 17 stations, Las tower, waternet, soilnet and bnunet nodes in the core area of flux observation matrix; ground control points in CASI flight area; ground corner reflector positions in radar coverage area; ground target positions in lidar flight area. (2) Hulugou small watershed Ground target location of lidar flight area. (3) Tianmuchi small watershed Ground target location of lidar flight area. (4) Dayokou Basin Satellite image geometric correction ground control point. Data format: GPS static survey, the original data format is ". Dat" and ". T01" (or ". T02") files (or converted renix data) and "field record". GPS-RTK survey, the original project is ". Job" file (or converted ". DC" file). The test results are submitted in the format of exported ". CSV" data, which can be viewed and edited by Excel software. Measurement time: June 19, 2012 to July 30, 2012

0 2020-03-13

WATER:Dataset of Soil freeze/thaw experiment Observed in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin from Nov. 10 to Nov. 14, 2013

This data set includes the continuous observation data set of light temperature and surface temperature and humidity measured by the vehicle borne microwave radiometer from November 10 to 14, 2013 in aroucaochang, arouxiang, Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The surface temperature and humidity include six layers of temperature sensor at the soil depth of 1cm, 3cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm and six layers of humidity sensor at the soil depth of 0-5cm. The time frequency of routine observation of soil temperature and humidity is 5 minutes. Data details: 1. Time: November 10-14, 2013 2. data: Brightness temperature: observed by vehicle mounted multi frequency passive microwave radiometer, including 6.925, 10.65, 18.7 and 36.5ghz V polarization and H polarization data Soil temperature: use the sensor installed on dt80 and dt85 to measure the soil temperature of 1cm, 5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 1cm, 3cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, which is measured by the sensor connected to dt80 Soil moisture: use h-probe sensor to measure 0-5cm soil moisture, the probe can measure 0-5cm soil temperature at the same time 3. Data size: 16.7M 4. Data format:. Xls

0 2020-03-13

WATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission in the Binggou watershed flight zone on Mar. 29, 2008

This data set was acquired by K & Ka band airborne microwave radiometer on March 29, 2008, in the Binggou watershed flight zone. Among them, K-band frequency is 18.7ghz, zenith angle observation, no polarization information; Ka band frequency is 36.0ghz, scanning imaging, scanning range ± 12 °, vertical polarization observation. The plane took off from Zhangye airport at 8:49 (Beijing time, the same below) and landed at 12:54. 9: At 25-12:08, 18 routes were flown according to the scheduled design, with a flight altitude of about 5000m and a flight speed of about 220-250km / hr. The original data is divided into two parts: microwave radiometer data and GPS data. The K-band of microwave radiometer belongs to non imaging observation, and the digital value obtained from instantaneous observation is recorded in the text file. Ka band belongs to imaging observation, which is different from L band and K band data. The original record of Ka band is hexadecimal text file. In data processing, the hexadecimal file needs to be converted to decimal system first, and then 112 data (the angle difference of each two data points is 24 / 112 = 0.214 degrees) are collected uniformly within the scanning range of 24 degrees. GPS data record the latitude and longitude of the flight and the aircraft attitude parameters. When using microwave radiometer to observe data, it is necessary to convert the digital value recorded into the bright temperature value according to the calibration coefficient (the calibration coefficient file is filed with the original observation data). At the same time, through the clock records of microwave radiometer and GPS, microwave observation and GPS record can be linked to match the geographical coordinate information for microwave observation. When processing Ka band data, the angle scanning effect should also be considered, and 112 data in the scanning period should be given geographical coordinate information respectively. Due to the coarse observation resolution of microwave radiometer, the effects of aircraft yaw, roll and pitch are generally ignored in data processing. According to the target and flight relative altitude (H), after calibration and coordinate matching, the observation information can also be gridded. The resolution (x) of K-band is consistent with that of observation footprint. The reference resolution is: x = 0.24h; the resolution of Ka band is 39m. After the above steps, we can get the products that users can use directly.

0 2020-03-09

WATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the A'rou flight zone in the morning of Apr. 1, 2008

This data set was acquired by the L & K band airborne microwave radiometer on the morning of April 1, 2008, in the A'rou flight zone. The frequency of L-band is 1.4GHz, and the backsight is 35 degrees to obtain dual polarization (H and V) information; the frequency of K-band is 18.7ghz, and there is no polarization information. The plane took off from Zhangye airport at 8:06 (Beijing time, the same below) and landed at 11:17. 8: 50-10:13 fly from north to south, observe and reserve 10 routes, flight height is about 4100m, flight speed is about 260km / hr. 10: At 20-10:35, Jiafei 6-8 and 6-9 lines completed the observation. The original data is divided into two parts: microwave radiometer data and GPS data. The L and K bands of microwave radiometer are non imaging observations. The digital values obtained from the instantaneous observation are recorded in the text file, and the longitude and latitude as well as the aircraft attitude parameters are recorded in the GPS data. When using microwave radiometer to observe data, it is necessary to convert the digital value recorded into the bright temperature value according to the calibration coefficient (the calibration coefficient file is filed with the original observation data). At the same time, through the clock records of microwave radiometer and GPS, we can connect the microwave observation with GPS record and match the geographic coordinate information for the microwave observation. Due to the coarse observation resolution of microwave radiometer, the effects of aircraft yaw, roll and pitch are generally ignored in data processing. According to the target and flight relative altitude (H), after calibration and coordinate matching, the observation information can also be gridded. The resolution (x) of L band and K band is consistent with that of observation footprint. The reference resolution is: L band, x = 0.3H; K band, x = 0.24h. After the above steps, we can get the products that users can use directly.

0 2020-03-09