WATER: Dataset of snow depth measured by the graduated snow sticks in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area

The dataset of snow depth measured by the elevation-graduated snow sticks was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area from Nov. 11 to 16, 2007, during the pre-observation period. 51 snow-stakes (2m long) were arranged according to different topographic landscapes, such as the flat, ubac, tailo and partial shade, and the length above the ground was recorded. From Mar. 2 to Apr. 6, 2008, the intensive observation period, ten measurements (Mar. 2, Mar. 4, Mar. 9, Mar. 16, Mar. 19, Mar. 21, Mar. 23, Mar. 29, Apr. 1 and Apr. 6) were carried out both manually and additionally by the telescope for the snow depth around the snow-stakes. Two files including raw data and preprocessed snow depth data were archived. Those provide reliable data for snow spatial heterogeneity study and snow accumulation and melt monitoring in the Binggou watershed.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou flight zone on Mar. 21, 2008

The dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K) mission was obtained in the Biandukou flight zone on Mar. 21, 2008. The frequency of L bands was 1.4 GHz with back sight of 35 degree and dual polarization (H&V) was acquired; and the frequency of K band was 18.7 GHz at the nadir view angle without polarization. The plane took off at Zhangye airport at 8:00 (BJT) and landed at 11:40, from north to south along the scheduled lines at the altitude about 4100m (400m for the low flight) and speed about 290km/hr . The raw data include microwave radiometer (L&K) data and GPS data; the former were instantaneous non-imaging observation recorded in text, which could be converted into brightness temperatures according to the calibration coefficients (filed with raw data together), and the latter were aircraft longitude, latitude and attitude. Moreover, based on the respective real-time clock log, observations by the microwave radiometer and GPS can be integrated to offer coordinates matching for the former. Yaw, flip, and pitch motions of aircraft were ignored due to the low resolution of microwave radiometer observations. Observation information can also be rasterized, as required, after calibration and coordinates matching. L&K bands resolution (x) and footprint can be approximately estimated as x=0.3H (H is relative flight height) for L and x=0.24H for K.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Airborne LiDAR-DSM point cloud data in Hulugou Catchment

On 25 July 2012, a Leica ALS70 airborne laser scanner boarded on the Y-12 aircraft was used to obtain the point cloud data. Leica ALS70 airborne laser scanner has unlimited numbers of returns intensities measurements including the first, second, third return intensities. The wavelength of laser light is 1064 nm. The absolute flight altitude is 5500 m with the point cloud density 1 points per square meter. Aerial LiDAR- DSM was obtained through parameter calibration, automatic classification of point cloud density and manual editing.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Airborne LiDAR raw data in the sample strip of the Heihe River Basin

On 25 August 2012, Leica ALS70 airborne laser scanner carried by the Harbin Y-12 aircraft was used in a LiDAR airborne optical remote sensing experiment. Leica ALS70 airborne laser scanner has unlimited numbers of returns intensities measurements including the first, second, third return intensities. The wavelength of laser light is 1064 nm. The absolute flight altitude is 5200 m with the point cloud density 1 point per square meter. Airborne LiDAR-DEM and DSM data production were obtained through parameter calibration, automatic classification of point cloud density and manual editing.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Jul. 4, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Jul. 4, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the soil temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer from L1 to L8 (1km from one another) in Biandukou and soil moisture by ML2X; nine samples were collected every 200 m along each line (1.6km). (2) 5 quadrates (50cm×50cm) investigations including GPS, the vegetation cover types and the height, the actual numbering, the valve bag numbering, wet weight+the refuse bag (g), dry weight+the envelope (g), the envelope (g) and the photo numbering. The data were archived as Excel files.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of GPS radiosonde observations

The dataset of GPS radiosonde observations was obtained at an interval of 2 seconds in the cold region hydrology experimental area in March, 2008 and the arid region hydrology experimental area from May to July, 2008. The items were the air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, the dew temperature, the water vapor mixing ratio, latitudinal and longitudinal wind speeds, the wind speed and direction. Simultaneous with the satellite/airplane overpass, GPS radiosonde observations were carried out: Binggou watershed on Mar. 14, A'rou on Mar. 15, Binggou watershed on Mar. 15, Biandukou on Mar. 17, Binggou watershed on Mar. 22, Binggou watershed on Mar. 29, and A'rou on Apr. 1 for the upper stream experiments; Linze grassland station on May 30, Yingke oasis on Jun.1, Huazhaizi desert station on Jun. 4, Linze grassland station on Jun. 5, Linze grassland station on Jun. 6, Huazhaizi desert station on Jun. 16, Yingke oasis on Jun. 29, Binggou watershed on Jul. 5, Yingke oasis on Jul. 7, Linze grassland station on Jul. 11, and Yingke oasis at 0, 4:10, 8:09, and 12:09 on Jul. 14 for middle stream experiments.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on May 25, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area on May 25, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the soil temperature in L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7; (2) roughness measured by the roughness grid board and collected by the digital camera. Files with "result" field were processed data, in which the first row was RMS height (cm; one value), the second row was distance (cm), and the third row was correlation function (cm; changed into correlation length when it is 1/e). (3) GPR and TDR data. Five files were included, roughness photos and preprocessed data, the soil temperature, coordinates of quadrates and sampling lines, GPR and microwave radiometer data. All were archived as Excel and .txt files. Those provide reliable ground data for development and validation of soil moisture and freeze/thaw algorithms from active remote sensing approaches.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with Envisat ASAR in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 15, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 15, 2008. The Envisat ASAR data were acquired in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:34 BJT. Observation items included: (1) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-B, BG-D, BG-E and BG-F; (2) Snow parameters including the snow surface temperature and the snow-soil interface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer, the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope, snow density by the aluminum case, snow depth by the ruler, and the snow surface temperature synchronizing with ASAR in BG-H, BG-D, BG-E and BG-F; (3) The snow spectrum by the portable ASD (Xinjiang Meteorological Administration) synchronizing with ASAR in BG-H15; the major and minor axis and shape of the snow layer grain through the self-made snow sieve. Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L bands) mission in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 1 August, 2012

The dataset of airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometers (PLMR) was acquired on 1 August, 2012, located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The aircraft took off at 8:30 am (UTC+8) from Zhangye airport and landed at 12:30 pm, with the flight time of 4 hours. The flight was performed in the altitude of about 1000 m and at the speed of about 220-250 km during the observation, corresponding to an expected ground resolution of about 300 m. The PLMR instrument flown on a small aircraft operates at 1.413 GHz (L-band), with both H- and V-polarizations at incidence angles of ±7.5°, ±21.5° and ±38.5°. PLMR ‘warm’ and ‘cold’ calibrations were performed before and after each flight. The processed PLMR data include 2 DAT files (v-pol and h-pol separately) and 1 KMZ file for each flying day. The DAT file contains all the TB values together with their corresponding beam ID, incidence angle, location, time stamp (in UTC) and other flight attitude information as per headings. The KMZ file shows the gridded 1-km TB values corrected to 38.5 degrees together with flight lines. Cautions should be taken when using these data, as the RFI contaminations are often higher than expected at v-polarization.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 29, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow was obtained, synchronizing with airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 29, 2008. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval of snow properties and parameters, especially snow depth and snow water equivalent study. Observation items include (1) snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-A; (2) snow parameters in BG-A (18 points), BG-B (20 points), BG-EF (20 points) and BG-I (20 points): snow depth by the ruler, the snow temperature (mean of two measurements) by the probe thermometer, snow grain size by the handheld microscope, snow density by the cutting ring for each snow layer, and the snow surface temperature and the snow-soil interface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer. For each snow pit, the snowpack was divided into several layers with 10-cm intervals of snow depth. Two files including raw data and pre-processed data were archived.

0 2019-05-23