HiWATER: Airborne CCD image data production in the sample strip in the upstream of the Heihe River Basin

On 25 August 2012, a RCD30 camera of Leica Company boarded on the Y-12 aircraft was utilized to obtain the optical remote sensing data. RCD30 camera has a focal length of 80 mm and four bands including red, green, blue and near-infrared bands. The absolute flight altitude is 5200 m and ground sample distance is 6-19 cm. The product includes TIF images and exterior orientation elements.

0 2019-09-11

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on March 30, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 30, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters and properties, especially for dry and wet snow identification. Observation items included: (1) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-A; (2) Snow parameters including snow depth, the snow surface temperature synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands), the snow layer temperature, the snow grain size and snow density in BG-A (10 points), BG-B (6 points), BG-F (12 points), BG-H (21 points) and BG-I (20 points); For each snow pit, the snowpack was divided into several layers with 10-cm intervals of snow depth. The layer depth (by the ruler), the snow grain size (by the handheld microscope), snow density (by the cutting ring) and the snow temperature (by the probe thermometer) were obtained at each snow pit. Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.

0 2019-09-10

Observation of water and heat flux in alpine meadow ecosystem — automatic weather station of Dashalong station (2015-2017)

The data set contains the meteorological element observation data of the upper reaches of the heihe hydrological meteorological observation network of daxun station on January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017.The site is located in the western side of qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 98.9406°E, 38.8399°N and 3739m above sea level.The air temperature and relative humidity sensor is set up at 5m, facing due north.The barometer is installed in the anti-skid box on the ground;The tipping bucket rain gauge is installed at 10m;The wind speed and direction sensor is mounted at 10m, facing due north;The four-component radiometer is installed at 6m, facing due south;Two infrared thermometers are installed at 6m, facing south, with the probe facing vertically downward;The soil temperature probe is buried at the surface of 0cm and underground of 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm, 2m south of the meteorological tower.The soil moisture probe is buried underground at 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm, 2m south of the meteorological tower.The soil heat flow plate (3 pieces) is buried in the underground 6cm successively and is 2m south of the meteorological tower. Observation projects are: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m, RH_5m) (unit: c, percentage), pressure (Press) (unit: hundred mpa), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_10m) (unit: m/s), wind (WD_10m) (unit: degrees), the radiation of four component (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watts per square meter), the surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit:C), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: wattage/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (unit: water content by volume, percentage). Processing and quality control of observation data :(1) 144 data per day (every 10min) should be ensured.(2) eliminate the moments with duplicate records;(3) data that obviously exceeds the physical significance or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the part marked with red letters in the data is questionable data;(5) the format of date and time is uniform, and the date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: 2015-9-10 10:30;(6) naming rules: AWS+ site name. For information of hydrometeorological network or site, please refer to Li et al. (2013), and for data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2019-06-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with MODIS in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 14, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with MODIS was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 14, 2008. Those provide reliable data for snow-cover extent mapping and the retrieval of the snow surface temperature from MODIS remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) Snow parameters including the snow surface temperature, the snow-soil interface temperature, the land surface (ground surface) temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer, the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, snow depth by the ruler, snow density by the snow shovel, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope and the snow surface temperature synchronizing with MODIS. (2) Snow albedo by the total radiometer in BG-A from 11:10-13:24 on Mar. 14, 2008. (3) The snow spectrum by the portable ASD (Xinjiang Meteorological Administration) synchronizing with MODIS in BG-A and BG-I. Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR in the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates of the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008. The Envisat ASAR data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:31 BJT. The quadrates were divided into 4×4 subsites, with each one spanning a 30×30 m2 plot. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture from active remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture by POGO soil sensor in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates; 25 corner points of each subsite were chosen for the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity; (2) the soil temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer 3# and 5# from BNU in No. 1 quadrate, 1# and 4# in No. 2 quadrate, and 2# and 6# in No. 3 quadrate; 25 corner points of each subsite were measured twice by two groups, and time, the maximum, the minimum and the mean value, and the land cover types were all recorded. (3) spectrum of the grassland, the bare land and the stellera by the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F. The dataset includes ASAR images, preprocessed data of the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F, the surface temperature and soil moisture synchronizing with Envisat ASAR.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of fresh snow properties observations at the temporary sampling plot in Qilian, in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 20, 2008

The dataset of fresh snow properties observations was obtained at the temporary sampling plot in the Qilian county on Mar. 20, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters from remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) Snow parameters such as snow depth, snow grain size by the handheld microscope, and snow density by the snow shovel (2) Fresh snow albedo by the total radiometer (3) Fresh snow spectrum by ASD Two files including raw data and preprocessed data were archived.

0 2019-05-23

HiWATER: Airborne CCD image data in Hulugou Catchment

On 25 August and 28 August, 2012, a RCD30 camera of Leica Company boarded on the Y-12 aircraft was used to obtain CCD image. RCD30 camera has a focal length of 80 mm and four bands including red, green, blue and near-infrared bands. The absolute flight altitude is 4800 and 5200 m, and ground sample distance is 6-19 cm. The product includes TIF images and exterior orientation elements.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the A'rou-Biandukou flight zone on Mar. 19, 2008

The dataset of airborne microwave radiometers (L&K) mission was obtained in the A'rou-Biandukou flight zone on Mar. 19, 2008. The frequency of L bands was 1.4 GHz with back sight of 35 degree and dual polarization (H&V) was acquired; and the frequency of K band was 18.7 GHz at the nadir view angle without polarization. The plane took off at Zhangye airport at 9:25 (BJT) and landed at 12:50 along the scheduled lines at the altitude about 4100m and speed about 260km/hr. The raw data include microwave radiometer (L&K bands) data and GPS data; the former are instantaneous non-imaging observation recorded in text, which will be converted into brightness temperatures according to the calibration coefficients (filed with raw data together), and the latter are aircraft longitude, latitude and attitude. Moreover, based on the respective real-time clock log, observations by the microwave radiometer and GPS can be integrated to offer coordinates matching for the former. Yaw, flip, and pitch motions of aircraft were ignored due to the low resolution of microwave radiometer observations. Observation information can also be rasterized, as required, after calibration and coordinates matching. L&K bands resolution (x) and footprint can be approximately estimated as x=0.3H (H is relative flight height) for L band and x=0.24H for K band.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of intensive snow parameter measurements in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 11, 2008

The dataset of intensive snow parameter measurements was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 11, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters from remote sensing approaches. Observation items included the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope, snow density by the aluminum case, the snow surface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer, and the snow-soil interface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer in three plots in BG-Z. 4 points were selected and measured 4 times in each plot. Two files including raw data and preprocessed data (3 subfolders enclosed) on snow properties were archived; besides, profile pictures of each point were also included.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with EO-1 Hyperion in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 22, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with EO-1 Hyperion was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 22, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters from remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) snow surface emissivity by the portable emissivity determinator near the Binggou cold region hydrometerological station; (2) snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-A from 11:20-13:53 (BJT) on Mar. 2, 2008; (3) snow parameters in BG-A, BG-B, BG-C, BG-D, BG-E and BG-F, and variables including the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope, snow density by the aluminum case and the snow surface temperature and the snow-soil interface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer simultaneous with the satellite; (4) the land surface infrared temperature in BG-D, BG-E, BG-B and BG-F during the airborne mission; (5) fresh snow albedo by the total radiometer east to A2; (6) snow spectrum by the portable ASD from Xinjiang Meteorological Administration and Nanjing University, GPS recordings enclosed. Two files including raw data and preprocessed data were archived.

0 2019-05-23