This data set is hyperspectral observation data of typical vegetation along Sichuan Tibet Railway in September 2019, using the airborne spectrometer of Dajiang M600 resonon imaging system. Including the hyperspectral data observed in the grassland area of Lhasa in 2019, with its own latitude and longitude. The hyperspectral survey was mainly sunny. Before flight, whiteboard calibration was carried out; when data were collected, there was a target (that is, the standard reflective cloth suitable for the grass), which was used for spectral calibration; there were ground mark points (that is, letters with foam plates), and the longitude and latitude coordinates of each mark were recorded for geometric precise calibration. The DN value recorded by Hyperspectral camera of UAV can be converted into reflectivity by using Spectron Pro software. Hyperspectral data is used to extract spectral characteristics of different vegetation types, vegetation classification, inversion of vegetation coverage and so on.
Snow pits were observed daily at Altay base station（lon：88.07、lat: 44.73） from November 27, 2015 to March 26, 2016. Parameters include: snow stratification, stratification thickness, density, particle size, temperature. The frequency of observation was daily. The particle size was observed by a microscope with camera, the density was observed by snowfork, snow shovel and Snow Cone, and the temperature was automatically observed by temperature sensor. The observation time was 8:00-10:100 am local time. The snow particle size is observed according to the natural stratification of snow. The snow particles of each layer are collected, and at least 2 photos are taken. The long axis and short axis of at least 10 groups of particles are measured by corresponding software. Unit: mm. The density was observed at equal intervals, snowfork every 5 cm, snow shovel every 10 cm, snow cone to observe the density of the whole snow layer, and the density of each layer was observed three times. The unit is g / cm3. The height of temperature observation is 0cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 25cm, 35cm, 45cm, 55cm. The recording frequency was once every 1 minute. The unit is OC.
On August 22, 2018, a DJI camera was used in the fixed sample of Lancang River headwaters. The overlap degree of adjacent photos was not less than 70% according to the set flight route. The Orthophoto Image and DSM were generated using the photographs taken. The Orthophoto Image included three bands of red, green and blue, with a ground resolution of 2.5 cm, a shooting area of 1000m x 1000m and a DSM resolution of 4.5 cm. Due to the communication failure, the middle four airstrips were not photographed, so there was a band in the middle of the image missing.
On August 19, 2018, the wetland sample in Qumali County, located in the source area of the Yangtze River, was aerially photographed by DJI Elf 4 UAV. A total of 31 routes were set up, flying at a height of 100 m, and the overlap of adjacent photographs was not less than 70%. A total of 1551 aerial photographs were obtained and stored in two folders named "Drone Photoes Part1" and "Drone Photoes Part2".
The remote sensing image interpretation mark is also called the interpretation factor, which can directly reflect the image features of the ground object information. The interpreter uses these marks to identify the nature, type or condition of the feature or phenomenon on the image, so it is for the remote sensing image data. Human-computer interactive interpretation is of great significance. The image used in the data to establish the interpretation mark avoids the summer with high vegetation coverage, and avoids the data with more snow cover, cloud cover or smog influence.According to the basic geographic information data extraction requirements, the combination of the remote sensing image band combination order and the full color band are selected.Avoid data loss when enhancing data. The requirement for selecting a typical marker-building area on an image is that the range is moderate to reflect the typical features of the type of landform, including as many basic geographic information elements as possible in the type of landform and the image quality is good. After the selection of the marking area is completed, look for all the basic geographic information element categories contained in the marking area, and then select various typical maps as the collection marks, then go to the field for field verification,including 3429 sampling reference points and 1,870 photos, and the translation of the library was established, and the unreasonable parts were modified until they were consistent with the field. At the same time, the ground photo of the map is taken to make the image and the actual ground elements relate to each other, expressing the authenticity and intuitiveness of the remote sensing image interpretation mark, and to deepen the user's understanding of the interpretation mark.
The data set was acquired by uav aerial photography during the field investigation on the Tibetan Plateau in 2018. The data size was 5.72 GB, including more than 800 photos.The photo was taken from July 19, 2008 to July 26, 2008. The shooting locations mainly include yambajing, keshi village, apaixin village, zhongguo village, mirin village, ri village, chongkang village, kesong village, semi village, yamzhuo yoncho and the surrounding areas.Aerial photos more clearly reflect the local land cover, land use type distribution density, rivers and lakes, vegetation, etc.), work for land use remote sensing provides better validation information, can also be used for the estimation of vegetation coverage, for the study of land use in the study area provided a good reference information.
On August 2, 2012, airborne ground synchronous observation was carried out in plmr quadrats of Yingke oasis and huazhaizi desert. Plmr (polarimetric L-band multibeam radiometer) is a dual polarized (H / V) L-band microwave radiometer, with a center frequency of 1.413 GHz, a bandwidth of 24 MHz, a resolution of 1 km (relative altitude of 3 km), six beam simultaneous observations, an incidence angle of ± 7 °, ± 21.5 °, ± 38.5 °, and a sensitivity of < 1K. The flight mainly covers the middle reaches of the artificial oasis eco hydrological experimental area. The local synchronous data set can provide the basic ground data set for the development and verification of passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture inversion algorithm. Quadrat and sampling strategy: The observation area is located in the transition zone between the southern edge of Zhangye Oasis and anyangtan desert, on the west side of Zhangye Daman highway, and across the trunk canal of Longqu in the north and the south, which is divided into two parts. In the southwest, there is a 1 km × 1 km desert quadrat. Because the desert is relatively homogeneous, here 1 The soil moisture of 5 points (1 point and center point around each side, and several more points can be measured during walking along the road in the actual measurement process) is collected in KM quadrat. The four corner points are 600 m apart from each other except the diagonal direction. The southwest corner point is huazhaizi desert station, which is convenient to compare with the data of meteorological station. On the northeast side, a large sample with an area of 1.6km × 1.6km was selected to carry out synchronous observation on the underlying surface of oasis. The selection of quadrat is mainly based on the consideration of the representativeness of surface coverage, avoiding residential buildings and greenhouses as much as possible, crossing oasis farmland and some deserts in the south, accessibility, and observation (road consumption) time, so as to obtain the comparison of brightness and temperature with plmr observation. Considering the resolution of plmr observation, 11 splines (east-west distribution) were collected at the interval of 160 m in the east-west direction. Each line has 21 points (north-south direction) at the interval of 80 M. four hydraprobe data acquisition systems (HDAS, reference 2) were used for simultaneous measurement. Measurement content: About 230 points on the quadrat were obtained, each point was observed twice, that is to say, two times were observed at each sampling point, one time was inside the film (marked as a in the data record) and one time was outside the film (marked as B in the data record). As the HDAS system uses pogo portable soil sensor, the soil temperature, soil moisture (volume moisture content), loss tangent, soil conductivity, real part and virtual part of soil complex dielectric are observed. No synchronous vegetation sampling was carried out on that day. Data: This data set consists of two parts: soil moisture observation and vegetation observation. The former saves data in vector file format, and the spatial location is the location of each sampling point (WGS84 + UTM 47N). Soil moisture and other measurement information are recorded in attribute file.
On July 3, 2012, airborne ground synchronous observation was carried out in plmr sample belt near Linze station. Plmr (polarimetric L-band multibeam radiometer) is a dual polarized (H / V) L-band microwave radiometer, with a center frequency of 1.413 GHz, a bandwidth of 24 MHz, a resolution of 1 km (relative altitude of 3 km), six beam simultaneous observations, an incidence angle of ± 7 °, ± 21.5 °, ± 38.5 °, and a sensitivity of < 1K. The local synchronous data set can provide the basic ground data set for the development and verification of passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture inversion algorithm. Quadrat and sampling strategy: According to the typical ground surface type represented by three points near Linze station and taking part of neutron tube observation into account, the three routes from northwest to southeast are designed, with an interval of 200 m, a design altitude of about 300 m and a plmr ground resolution of 100 m. According to the observation characteristics of the route and plmr, three observation transects are designed on both sides of the route, each of which is about 6 km long. From west to East are L1, L2 and L3 respectively. Among them, L1 and L2 are centered on the middle route, 80 m apart; L2 and L3 are 200 m apart. Four hydroprobe data acquisition systems (HDAS, ref. 2) were used to measure at the same time. Measurement content: About 4500 points on the sample belt were obtained, each point was observed twice, that is to say, in each sampling point, once in the film (marked as a in the data record) and once out of the film (marked as B in the data record). As the HDAS system uses pogo portable soil sensor, the soil temperature, soil moisture (volume moisture content), loss tangent, soil conductivity, real part and virtual part of soil complex dielectric are observed. Vegetation parameter observation was carried out in some representative soil water sampling points, and the measurement of plant height and biomass (vegetation water content) was completed. Note: the observation date coincides with the irrigation of large area of farmland in this area, which makes it difficult for the observer to move forward, the field block is difficult to enter, and the observation point position deviates from the preset point position. Data: This data set includes two parts: soil moisture observation and vegetation observation. The former saves the data format as a vector file, the spatial location is the location of each sampling point (WGS84 + UTM 47N), and the measurement information of soil moisture is recorded in the attribute file; the vegetation sampling information is recorded in the excel table.
During lidar and widas flight in summer 2012, the ground synchronously carried out the continuous observation of differential GPS of ground base station, and obtained the synchronous GPS static observation data, which is used to support the synchronous solution of aviation flight data. Measuring instrument: Two sets of triple R8 GNSS system. Zgp8001 sets Time and place of measurement: On July 19, 2012, EC matrix lidar flew and observed at mjwxb (northwest of Maojiawan) and sbmz (shibamin) two base stations at the same time On July 25, 2012, lidar of hulugou small watershed and tianmuchi small watershed in the upper reaches flew, observed in XT Xiatang, lidar of Zhangye City calibration field in the middle reaches, and observed in mjwxb (northwest of Maojiawan) On July 26, 2012, lidar flight of hulugou small watershed and tianmuchi small watershed in the upper reaches was observed in XT Xiatang, lidar flight of Zhangye City calibration field in the middle reaches was observed in HCZ (railway station) On August 1, 2012, the upper east and West branches of widas flew and observed in yng (yeniugou) On August 2, 2012, the midstream EC matrix test area widas flew and observed in HCZ (railway station) On August 3, 2012, the midstream EC matrix test area widas flew and observed in mjwxb (northwest Maojiawan) Data format: Original data format before differential preprocessing.
This data includes the coverage data set of vegetation in one growth cycle in five stations of Daman super station, wetland, desert, desert and Gobi, and the biomass data set of maize and wetland reed in one growth cycle in Daman super station. The observation time starts from May 10, 2014 and ends on September 11, 2014. 1 coverage observation 1.1 observation time 1.1.1 super station: the observation period is from May 10 to September 11, 2014. Before July 20, the observation is once every five days. After July 20, the observation is once every 10 days. A total of 17 observations are made. The specific observation time is as follows:; Super stations: May 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 10, 15, 20, 20, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30, 7, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 15 1.1.2 other four stations: the observation period is from May 20 to September 15, 2014, once every 10 days, and 11 observations have been made in total. The specific observation time is as follows:; Other four stations: May 10, 2014, May 20, 2014, May 30, 2014, June 10, 2014, June 20, 2014, June 30, July 10, 2014, July 20, August 5, 2014, August 17, 2014, September 11, 2014 1.2 observation method 1.2.1 measuring instruments and principles: The digital camera is placed on the instrument platform at the front end of the simple support pole to keep the shooting vertical and downward and remotely control the camera measurement data. The observation frame can be used to change the shooting height of the camera and realize targeted measurement for different types of vegetation. 1.2.2 design of sample Super station: take 3 plots in total, the sample size of each plot is 10 × 10 meters, take photos along two diagonal lines in turn each time, take 9-10 photos in total; Wetland station: take 2 sample plots, each plot is 10 × 10 meters in size, and take 9-10 photos for each survey; 3 other stations: select 1 sample plot, each sample plot is 10 × 10 meters in size, and take 9-10 photos for each survey; 1.2.3 shooting method For the super station corn and wetland station reed, the observation frame is directly used to ensure that the camera on the observation frame is far higher than the vegetation crown height. Samples are taken along the diagonal in the square quadrat, and then the arithmetic average is made. In the case of a small field angle (< 30 °), the field of view includes more than 2 ridges with a full cycle, and the side length of the photo is parallel to the ridge; in the other three sites, due to the relatively low vegetation, the camera is directly used to take pictures vertically downward (without using the bracket). 1.2.4 coverage calculation The coverage calculation is completed by Beijing Normal University, and an automatic classification method is adopted. For details, see article 1 of "recommended references". By transforming RGB color space to lab space which is easier to distinguish green vegetation, the histogram of green component A is clustered to separate green vegetation and non green background, and the vegetation coverage of a single photo is obtained. The advantage of this method lies in its simple algorithm, easy to implement and high degree of automation and precision. In the future, more rapid, automatic and accurate classification methods are needed to maximize the advantages of digital camera methods. 2 biomass observation 2.1 observation time 2.1.1 corn: the observation period is from May 10 to September 11, 2014, once every 5 days before July 20, and once every 10 days after July 20. A total of 17 observations have been made. The specific observation time is as follows:; Super stations: May 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 10, 15, 20, 20, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30, 7, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 15 2.1.2 Reed: the observation period is from May 20 to September 15, 2014, once every 10 days, and 11 observations have been made in total. The specific observation time is as follows:; 2014-5-10、2014-5-20、2014-5-30、2014-6-10、2014-6-20、2014-6-30、2014-7-10、2014-7-20、2014-8-5、2014-8-17、2014-9-11 2.2 observation method Corn: select three sample plots, and select three corn plants that represent the average level of each sample plot for each observation, respectively weigh the fresh weight (aboveground biomass + underground biomass) and the corresponding dry weight (85 ℃ constant temperature drying), and calculate the biomass of unit area corn according to the plant spacing and row spacing; Reed: set two 0.5m × 0.5m quadrats, cut them in the same place, and weigh the fresh weight (stem and leaf) and dry weight (constant temperature drying at 85 ℃) of reed respectively. 2.3 observation instruments Balance (accuracy 0.01g), oven. 3 data storage All the observation data were recorded in the excel table first, and then stored in the excel table. At the same time, the data of corn planting structure was sorted out, including the plant spacing, row spacing, planting time, irrigation time, except for the parent time, harvesting time and other relevant information.