The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2013 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau around 2013. 128 Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were selected with 30-m spatial resolution, for comparability with previous and current glacier inventories. Besides, about 20 images acquired in 2014 were used to complete the full coverage of the TP. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 2013. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2013 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. [To minimize the effects of snow or cloud cover on glacierized areas, high-resolution (30 m spatial resolution and 4-day repetition cycle) images were also used for reference in glacier delineation from the Chinese satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, which were launched on Sep.6th 2008. Both carried as payload two 4-band CCD cameras with swath width 700 km (360 km per camera). All HJ-1A/1B data in 2012, 2013 and 2014 (65 scenes, Fig.S1, Table S1) were from China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA; http://www.cresda.com/n16/n92006/n92066/n98627/index.html). Each scene was orthorectified with respect to the 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Landsat images.] The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. Topographic maps from the 1970s and all available satellite images (including Google EarthTM imagery and HJ-1A/1B satellite data) were used as base reference data. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2013. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2013 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.
The DEMs of the typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were provided by the bistatic InSAR method. The data were collected on November 21, 2013. It covered Puruogangri and west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 10 meters, and an elevation accuracy of 0.8 m which met the requirements of national 1:10 000 topographic mapping. Considering the characteristics of the bistatic InSAR in terms of imaging geometry and phase unwrapping, based on the TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data, and adopting the improved SAR interference processing method, the surface DEMs of the two typical glaciers above were generated with high resolution and precision. The data set was in GeoTIFF format, and each typical glacial DEM was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Surface DEMs for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.
The data set contains the observation data of the evapotranspiration apparatus on January 1, 2013 (solstice) and December 31, 2013.The site is located in huailai county, hebei province, east garden town, the underlying surface for corn.The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 115.7880E, 40.3491N, and the altitude is 480m. The collection frequency of evapotranspiration permeameter is 1 time/minute, and the released data is the average of 10 minutes.The evapotranspiration meter is a cylindrical structure with a surface area of 1m2 and a buried depth of 1.5m. The observation accuracy of evapotranspiration is 0.01mm.Two evapotranspiration seeptometers were installed, one kept bare soil (lysimeter_1), the other for the corn underlay (lysimeter_2) during the growing season (May 10 - September 15).Soil temperature and humidity probe, soil water potential probe and soil heat flow plate are also installed in the evapotranspiration apparatus.The buried depth of the soil temperature sensor is 5cm, 30cm, 50cm, 100cm and 140cm.The buried depth of the soil water sensor is 2cm, 10cm, 20cm and 40cm.The soil heat flux plate is buried 10cm underground;The buried depth of the soil water potential sensor was 30cm and 140cm.Processing and quality control of observation data :(1) ensure 144 data per day (every 10min). If data is missing, it will be marked by -6999;(2) delete the data of observation anomalies caused during maintenance;(3) data that is obviously beyond the physical meaning or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the format of date and time is unified, and the date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: 2013-6-10-10:30. The observation data released by the evapotranspiration permeameter include:Date/Time, weighing mass (i.l._1_wag_l_000 (Kg), i.l._2_wag_l_000 (Kg)), seepage mass (i.l._1_wag_d_000 (Kg), i.l._2_wag_d_000 (Kg)), soil heat flux (Gs_1_10cm, Gs_2_10cm) (W/m2),Multi-layer soil moisture (Ms_1_2cm, Ms_1_10cm, Ms_1_20cm, Ms_1_40cm, Ms_2_2cm, Ms_2_10cm, Ms_2_20cm, Ms_2_40cm) (%),Multi-layer soil temperature (Ts_1_5cm, Ts_1_30cm, Ts_1_50cm, Ts_1_100cm, Ts_1_140cm, Ts_2_140cm, ts_2_2_5cm, ts_2_2_50cm, Ts_2_100cm, Ts_2_140cm) (℃), soil water potential (TS_1_30 (hPa), TS_1_140 (hPa), TS_2_30 (hPa), TS_2_30 (hPa), TS_2_140 (hPa), TS_2_140 (hPa));The data is stored in *.xls format. Guo et al, 2020 is used for site introduction and Liu et al, 2013 for data processing
This dataset contains the observation data of large aperture scintillator on January 1, 2013 (solstice) and December 31, 2013. Two large aperture scintillator models BLS450 and zzlas were installed respectively.The site is located in huailai county, hebei province, east garden town, under the surface of corn.The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 115.7880E, 40.3491N, and the altitude is 480m.The effective height of the large aperture scintillation instrument is 14m, the optical diameter length is 1870m, the longitude and latitude of the transmitting end is 115.8023e, 40.3596n, and the longitude and latitude of the receiving end is 115.7825e, 40.3522n.The acquisition frequencies of BLS450 and zzlas were 5Hz and 1Hz respectively, with an average output of 1min. Large aperture flicker meter raw data for 1 min, data released for 30 min after processing and quality control of the average data, including sensible heat flux is mainly combined with the automatic meteorological station data, based on similarity theory alonzo mourning - Mr. Hoff is obtained by iterative calculation, in the process of iterative calculation, for BLS450, select Thiermann and Grassl, the stability of the 1992 universal functions;For zzlas, select Andreas 1988's stability universal function.The main quality control steps include :(1) eliminating the data of Cn2 reaching saturation;(2) eliminate data with weak demodulation signal strength;(3) data of the time of precipitation and the hour before and after the precipitation are excluded;(4) data of weak turbulence under stable conditions were excluded (u* < 0.1m/s). Several notes on the released data :(1) LAS data is mainly BLS450, the missing time is supplemented by zzlas observation, and the missing time of both is marked by -6999.(2) data table: Date/Time: Date/Time, Cn2: air refractive index structure parameter (m-2/3), H_LAS: sensible heat flux (W/m2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average between 0:00 and 0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format Guo et al, 2020 is used for site introduction and Liu et al, 2013 for data processing
The data set contains the observation data of the 10m tower automatic weather station on December 31, 2013 at 1 solstice on January 1, 2013.Station is located in huailai county, hebei province, east garden town, under the surface of irrigated corn.The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 115.7880E, 40.3491N, and the altitude is 480m. The automatic weather station is installed on a 10m tower, the acquisition frequency is 30s, and the output time is 10min.The observation factors include air temperature and relative humidity (5m), and the direction is due north.The wind speed (10m), the wind direction (10m), the direction is due to the north;Air pressure (installed in waterproof box);Rainfall (10m);The four-component radiation (5m), the direction is due to the south;The infrared surface temperature (5m), the arm is facing south, and the probe is facing vertically downward.The soil temperature and humidity probe was buried 1.5m south of the meteorological tower. The soil temperature probe was buried at a depth of 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm. The soil moisture sensor was buried at a depth of 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm.The average soil temperature was buried 2,4 cm underground.Soil hot flow plates (3) are buried in the ground 6cm.Processing and quality control of observation data :(1) ensure 144 data per day (every 10min). If data is missing, it will be marked by -6999;(2) eliminate the moments with duplicate records;(3) data that is obviously beyond the physical meaning or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the format of date and time is unified, and the date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: 2013-6-10-10:30.From February 4 to February 27, due to probe problems, soil moisture data at depth of 20, 40, 80 and 120cm were wrong;From January 1st to January 3rd and April 25th solstice May 20th due to probe problems, soil moisture data at depth of 2, 4 and 10cm were wrong;From January 1 to May 10, soil moisture data at 160cm depth was wrong due to probe problems.Dec 11 - dec 31 data missing due to power converter damage. Data released by the automatic weather station include:Date/Time, air temperature and humidity observation (Ta_5m, RH_5m) (℃, %), wind speed (Ws_10m) (m/s), wind direction (WD) (°), pressure (hpa), precipitation (Rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, UR, DLR, ULR, Rn) (W/m2), surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (℃),Soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (W/m2), multi-layer soil moisture (Ms_2cm, Ms_4cm, Ms_10cm, Ms_20cm, Ms_40cm, Ms_80cm, Ms_120cm, Ms_160cm) (%), multi-layer soil temperature (Ts_2cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (℃), average soil temperature TCAV (℃). Guo et al, 2020 is used for site introduction and Liu et al, 2013 for data processing.
"Hydrologic - ecological - economic process coupling and evolution of heihe river basin governance under the framework of Water rights" (91125018) project data exchange to 5-water-plan-california 1. Data overview: California's water resources plan for 2005 for catchment comparison 2. Data content: the public plan
This data set contains the element content data of a deep drilled formation near the open sea in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The borehole is located at 99.432 E and 39.463 n with a depth of 550m. The element scanning analysis was carried out at 1-3cm intervals for the drilled strata. The scanning was completed in the Key Laboratory of Western Ministry of environmental education, Lanzhou University, and 38705 effective element data were obtained.
From 2013 to 2014, the Glacial Geomorphology of the upper reaches of Heihe River in the late Quaternary was investigated and sampled. Based on the field investigation and remote sensing image, the distribution map of moraine at different levels near the ridge of the upper reaches of the Bailang river was obtained.
The survey data of vegetation quadrat in the middle reaches of Heihe River consists of the field survey data in 2013 and 2014, including the vegetation and soil data of the survey quadrat. The data of each survey sample includes the following information: sample longitude and latitude, sample size, elevation, sample overview, plant name, plant height, crown width, coverage, total coverage, number of trees, plant spacing, row spacing, large row spacing, DBH. The soil is divided into 6 layers according to 0-100cm below the ground, which are 0-10cm, 10-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm, 60-80cm and 80-100cm respectively.