Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope data set of Kathmandu precipitation (2016-2018)

Precipitation stable isotopes (2H and 18O) are adequately understood on their climate controls in the Tibetan Plateau, especially the north of Himalayas via about 30 years’ studies. However, knowledge of controls on precipitation stable isotopes in Nepal (the south of Himalayas), is still far from sufficient. This study described the intra-seasonal and annual variations of precipitation stable isotopes at Kathmandu, Nepal from 10 May 2016 to 21 September 2018 and analysed the possible controls on precipitation stable isotopes. All samples are located in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal (27 degrees north latitude, 85 degrees east longitude), with an average altitude of about 1400 m. Combined with the meteorological data from January 1, 2001 to September 21, 2018, the values of precipitation (P), temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are given.

0 2020-09-22

Data set of glacier advance and retreat range in Karakoram area

The ages of glacial traces of the last glacial maximum, Holocene and little ice age in the Westerlies and monsoon areas were determined by Cosmogenic Nuclide (10Be and 26Al) exposure dating method to determine the absolute age sequence of glacial advance and retreat. The distribution of glacial remains is investigated in the field, the location of moraine ridge is determined, and the geomorphic characteristics of moraine ridge are measured. According to the geomorphic location and weathering degree of glacial remains, the relationship between the new and the old is determined, and the moraine ridge of the last glacial maximum is preliminarily determined. The exposed age samples of glacial boulders on each row of moraine ridges were collected from the ridge upstream. This data includes the range of glacier advance and retreat in Karakoram area during climate transition period based on 10Be exposure age method.

0 2020-09-16

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (automatic weather station of Heihe remote sensing station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Heihe remote sensing station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (100.4756° E, 38.8270° N) was located on artificial grassland in Dangzhai Town of Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1560 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (1.5 m, north), wind speed and direction (10 m, north), air pressure (2 m), rain gauge (0.7 m), four-component radiometer (1.5 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (1.5 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 m), and two photosynthetically active radiation (1.5 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1.5, RH_1.5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm) (℃),on the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2020-08-31

Meteorological monitoring data of Kara-Batkak glacier in the Western Tianshan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan (2018-2019)

Kara batkak glacier meteorological station in Western Tianshan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan (42 ° 9'46 ″ n, 78 ° 16'21 ″ e, 3280m). The observation data include hourly meteorological elements (temperature (℃), maximum temperature (℃), time of maximum temperature occurrence, minimum temperature (℃), minimum temperature occurrence time, 0.1mm hourly rainfall (mm), 0.5mm hourly rainfall (mm), instantaneous wind direction (°), instantaneous wind speed (M / S), 2-minute wind direction (°), 2-minute wind speed (M / s), 10 minute wind speed (M / s), maximum wind direction (°), maximum wind speed (°), maximum wind speed (°) Major wind speed (M / s), maximum wind speed time, wind direction (°), maximum wind speed (M / s), maximum wind speed time, maximum instantaneous wind speed and direction (°), maximum instantaneous wind speed (M / s), relative humidity (%), minimum relative humidity (%), occurrence time of minimum relative humidity, water pressure (HPA), dew point temperature (℃), air pressure (HPA), sea level pressure (HPA), maximum pressure (HPA) The time of the highest air pressure, the lowest pressure (HPA) and the lowest air pressure (time). Meteorological observation elements are processed into climatic data after accumulation and statistics, providing important data for planning, design and research of agriculture, forestry, industry, transportation, military, hydrology, medical and health care and environmental protection departments.

0 2020-08-24

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of A’rou Superstation, 2017)

The data set contains data from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017 from the meteorological element gradient observation system of alu superstation, upstream of the heihe hydrometeorological observation network.The station is located in caoban village, aru township, qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 100.4643e, 38.0473n and 3033m above sea level.The air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed sensors are located at 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 15m and 25m respectively, with a total of six layers facing due north.The wind direction sensor is located at 10m, facing due north;The barometer is installed at 2m;The tilting rain gauge is installed on the 28m observation tower of super aru station;The four-component radiometer is installed at 5m, facing due south;Two infrared thermometers are installed at 5m, facing due south, and the probe facing vertically downward.The photosynthetic effective radiometer is installed at 5m, facing due south, and the probe facing vertically upward.Part of the soil sensor is buried at 2m in the south direction of the tower body, and the soil heat flow plate (self-correcting formal) (3 pieces) are all buried at 6cm underground.The mean soil temperature sensor TCAV is buried 2cm and 4cm underground.The soil temperature probe is buried at the surface of 0cm and underground of 2cm, 4cm, 6cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm, 160cm, 200cm, 240cm, 280cm and 320cm, among which the 4cm and 10cm layers have three repeats.The soil water sensor is buried underground 2cm, 4cm, 6cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm, 160cm, 200cm, 240cm, 280cm and 320cm respectively, among which the 4cm and 10cm layers have three duplexes. The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1 m, Ta_2 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m and Ta_25 m; RH_1 m, RH_2 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m and RH_25 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_1 m, Ws_2 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m and Ws_25 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_2 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/(s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm_1, Ts_4 cm_2, Ts_4 cm_3, Ts_6 cm, Ts_10 cm_1, Ts_10 cm_2, Ts_10 cm_3, Ts_15 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_30 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm, Ts_200 cm, Ts_240 cm, Ts_280 cm and Ts_320 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm_1, Ms_4 cm_2, Ms_4 cm_3, Ms_6 cm, Ms_10 cm_1, Ms_10 cm_2, Ms_10 cm_3, Ms_15 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_30 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm, Ms_200 cm, Ms_240 cm, Ms_280 cm and Ms_320 cm) (%, volumetric water content). Processing and quality control of observed data :(1) ensure 144 pieces of data every day (every 10min), and mark by -6999 in case of data missing;The soil heat flux G1 was between 2017.1.1-2.28 and 2017.8.8-8.23, while the soil heat flux G3 was between 4.16-7.6. Due to sensor problems, data was missing.(2) excluding the time with duplicate records;(3) data that obviously exceeds the physical significance or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the part marked with red letter in the data is the data in question;(5) date and time have the same format, and date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: 2017-6-10:10:30;(6) the naming rule is: AWS+ site name. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-08-17

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (large aperture scintillometer of Daman Superstation, 2016)

The data set contains the flux observation data of large aperture scintillator from daman station in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network.Large aperture scintillators of BLS450 and BLS900 models were installed at daman station in the middle reaches of China. The north tower was the receiving end of BLS900 and the transmitting end of BLS450, and the south tower was the transmitting end and the receiving end of BLS900.The observation time is from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016.The station is located in dazman irrigation district, zhangye city, gansu province.The latitude and longitude of the north tower is 100.3785 E, 38.8607 N, and the latitude and longitude of the south tower is 100.3685 E, 38.8468 N, with an altitude of about 1556m.The effective height of the large aperture scintillator is 22.45m, the optical diameter length is 1854m, and the sampling frequency is 1min. Large aperture flicker meter raw observation data for 1 min, data released for after processing and quality control of data, including sensible heat flux is mainly combined with the automatic meteorological station observation data, based on similarity theory alonzo mourning - Mr. Hoff is obtained by iterative calculation, the quality control of the main steps include: (1) excluding Cn2 reach saturation data (Cn2 e-13 > 1.43);(2) data with weak demodulation signal strength (Average X Intensity<1000) were eliminated;(3) data at the time of precipitation were excluded;(4) data of weak turbulence under stable conditions were excluded (u* < 0.1m/s).In the iterative calculation process, the stability universal function of Thiermann and Grassl(1992) was selected. Please refer to Liu et al(2011, 2013) for detailed introduction. Some notes on the released data :(1) the middle LAS data is mainly BLS900, the missing time is supplemented by BLS450 observation, and the missing time of both is marked with -6999.(2) data table head: Date/Time: Date/Time (format: yyyy/m/d h:mm), Cn2: structural parameters of air refraction index (unit: m-2/3), H_LAS: sensible heat flux (unit: W/m2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average between 0:00 and 0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. Please refer to Li et al. (2013) for hydrometeorological network or site information, and Liu et al. (2011) for observation data processing.

0 2020-08-17

South Asia meteorological data set: meteorological data of Kathmandu center for research and education,CAS-TU (2019)

1) This data includes the basic meteorological data of Kathmandu center for research and education,CAS-TU in 2019; the parameters are: temperature ℃, relative humidity%, atmospheric pressure kPa, precipitation mm, radiation w / m2, wind speed M / s. Table 2 is a description of the weather station, including the geographical location and underlying surface. 2) Data sources and processing methods: the data are from the hourly data of Kathmandu science and education center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, daily average of temperature, air pressure, radiation and wind speed, and daily sum of rainfall. 3) Data quality description: among these parameters, the quality of air pressure data is poor, and there are many missing data due to instrument failure from June to August in 2019 4) Compared with the data of different regions in South Asia, the meteorological data can be used for postgraduates and scientists with atmospheric science, hydrology, climatology, physical geography and ecology.

0 2020-08-06

Basic datasets of Urumqi river basin in Chinese Cryospheric Information System

Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of Chinese cryospheric data. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, and provide parameters and verification data for the development of response and feedback models of permafrost, glacier and snow cover to global changes under GIS framework. On the other hand, the system collates and rescues valuable cryospheric data to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and analysis tool. Chinese Cryospheric Information System contains three basic databases of different research regions. The basic database of Urumqi river basin is one of three basic databases, which covers the Urumqi river basin in tianshan mountain, east longitude 86-89 °, and north latitude 42-45 °, mainly containing the following data: 1. Cryospheric data.Include: Distribution of glacier no. 1 and glacier no. 2; 2. Natural environment and resources.Include: Terrain digital elevation: elevation, slope, slope direction; Hydrology: current situation of water resource utilization;Surface water; Surface characteristics: vegetation type;Soil type;Land resource evaluation map;Land use status map; 3. Social and economic resources: a change map of human action; Please refer to the documents (in Chinese): "Chinese Cryospheric Information System design. Doc" and "Chinese Cryospheric Information System data dictionary. Doc".

0 2020-07-31

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Qinghai Lake integrated observatory network (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of Alpine meadow and grassland ecosystem superstation, 2018)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Qinghai Lake integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of the Alpine meadow and grassland ecosystem Superstation from August 31 to December 24, 2018. The site (98°35′41.62″E, 37°42′11.47″N) was located in the alpine meadow and alpine grassland ecosystem, near the SuGe Road in Tianjun County, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3718m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP155; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 3 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10m of the platform in west by north of tower), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (PQS1; 6 m, towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward, soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates below the vegetation; -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109; -0.05、-0.10、-0.20、-0.40、-0.80、-1.20、-2.00、-3.00 and -4.00m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.05、-0.10、-0.20、-0.40、-0.80、-1.20、-2.00、-3.00 and -4.00m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30m, and WD_40 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5cm、Ts_10cm、Ts_20cm、Ts_40cm、Ts_80cm、Ts_120cm、Ts_200cm、Ts_300cm、Ts_400cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5cm、Ms_10cm、Ms_20cm、Ms_40cm、Ms_80cm、Ms_120cm、Ms_200cm、Ms_300cm、Ms_400cm) (%, volumetric water content), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018/8/31 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.

0 2020-07-25

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dayekou Station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dayekou Station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (100.285° E, 38.555° N) was located on a glassland in the Dayekou, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2694 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (8 m), air pressure (2 m), rain gauge (2 m), infrared temperature sensors (2 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (below the vegetation, -0.05 m; towards south), soil soil temperature/moisture/electrical conductivity profile (-0.05 m) photosynthetically active radiation (2 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (2 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(2 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_8m; RH_3m, RH_5 m, RH_8m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_8m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_8m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil heat flux (Gs_5 cm) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5cm)(℃), soil moisture (Ms_5cm)(%, volumetric water content), photosynthetically active radiation (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil water potential (Swp_5cm)(kpa), soil conductivity (Ec_5cm)(μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30.

0 2020-07-25