During lidar and widas flight in summer 2012, the ground synchronously carried out the continuous observation of differential GPS of ground base station, and obtained the synchronous GPS static observation data, which is used to support the synchronous solution of aviation flight data. Measuring instrument: Two sets of triple R8 GNSS system. Zgp8001 sets Time and place of measurement: On July 19, 2012, EC matrix lidar flew and observed at mjwxb (northwest of Maojiawan) and sbmz (shibamin) two base stations at the same time On July 25, 2012, lidar of hulugou small watershed and tianmuchi small watershed in the upper reaches flew, observed in XT Xiatang, lidar of Zhangye City calibration field in the middle reaches, and observed in mjwxb (northwest of Maojiawan) On July 26, 2012, lidar flight of hulugou small watershed and tianmuchi small watershed in the upper reaches was observed in XT Xiatang, lidar flight of Zhangye City calibration field in the middle reaches was observed in HCZ (railway station) On August 1, 2012, the upper east and West branches of widas flew and observed in yng (yeniugou) On August 2, 2012, the midstream EC matrix test area widas flew and observed in HCZ (railway station) On August 3, 2012, the midstream EC matrix test area widas flew and observed in mjwxb (northwest Maojiawan) Data format: Original data format before differential preprocessing.
The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) mission was obtained in upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 1 August, 2012. PLMR is a dual-polarization (H/V) airborne microwave radiometer with a frequency of 1.413 GHz, which can provide multi-angular observations with 6 beams at ±7º, ±21.5º and ±38.5º. The PLMR spatial resolution (beam spot size) is approximately 0.3 times the altitude, and the swath width is about twice the altitude. The measurements were conducted along two transects respectively located at the west and east branches of the Babaohe River and two sampling plots in the A’rou foci experimental area. Along the transects, soil moisture was sampled at every 50 m in the west-east direction. In order to keep the ground measurements following the airborne mission as synchronous as possible in temporal, measurements were made discontinuously. In the A’rou foci experimental area, two sampling plots were identified with areas of 1.5 km × 0.6 km and 0.85 km × 0.6 km. In each plot, soil moisture was sampled at every 50 m in the west-east direction and 100 m in the north-south direction. Steven Hydro probes were used to collect soil moisture and other measurements. Concurrently with soil moisture sampling, vegetation properties were measured at some typical sampling plots. Observation items included: Soil parameters: volumetric soil moisture (inherently converted from measured soil dielectric constant), soil temperature, soil dielectric constant, soil electric conductivity. Vegetation parameters: biomass, vegetation water content, canopy height. Data and data format: This dataset includes two parts of measurements, i.e. soil and vegetation parameters. The former is as shapefile, with measured items stored in its attribute table. The measured vegetation parameters are recorded in an Excel file.
On 1 August 2012 (UTC+8), a Wide-angle Infrared Dual-mode line/area Array Scanner (WIDAS) carried by the Harbin Y-12 aircraft was used in a visible near Infrared thermal Dual-mode airborne remote sensing experiment, which is located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin. WIDAS includes a CCD camera with a spatial resolution of 0.08 m, a visible near Infrared multispectral camera with five bands scanner (an maximum observation angle 48° and spatial resolution 0.4 m), and a thermal image camera with a spatial resolution of 2 m. The CCD camera data are recorded in DN values processed by mosaic and orthorectification. The mutispectral camera data production are recorded in reflectance processed by atmospheric and geometric correction. Thermal image camera data production are recorded in radiation brightness temperature processed by atmospheric and geometric correction.
On 1 August 2012, Wide-angle Infrared Dual-mode line/area Array Scanner (WIDAS) carried by the Harbin Y-12 aircraft was used in a visible near Infrared thermal Dual-mode airborne remote sensing experiment, which is located in the artificial oasis eco-hydrology experimental area. WIDAS includes a CCD camera with a spatial of resolution 0.08 m, a visible near Infrared multispectral camera with five bands scanner (an maximum observation angle 48° and spatial resolution 0.4 m), and a thermal image camera with a spatial resolution of 2 m. The CCD camera data are recorded in DN values processed by mosaic and orthorectification.
The aim of the simultaneous observation of river surface temperature is obtaining the land surface temperature in different places be of different kinds of underlying surface, while the sensor of WiDAS go into the experimental areas of the upstream of Heihe river basin. All the land surface temperature data will be used for validation of the retrieved land surface temperature from WiDAS sensor and the analysis of the scale effect of the land surface temperature, and finally serve for the validation of the authenticity of the surface temperature product from remote sensing. 1. Observation sites and other details Six places be of different kinds of underlying surface were chosen to observe surface temperature simultaneous in the upstream of Heihe river basin on 1 August. Self-recording point thermometers (observed once every 6 seconds) were used one place while handheld infrared thermometers (observed continuously during the sensor of WiDAS go into the region) were used in other five places. The main underlying surface including natural grassland, river section, river rapids, gravel. 2. Instrument parameters and calibration. The field of view of the self-recording point thermometer and the handheld infrared thermometer are 10 and 1 degree, respectively. The emissivity of the latter was assumed to be 0.95. All instruments were calibrated on 5 August, 2012 using black body during observation. 3. Data storage All the observation data were stored in excel.
The dataset of airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometers (PLMR) was acquired on 1 August, 2012, located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The aircraft took off at 8:30 am (UTC+8) from Zhangye airport and landed at 12:30 pm, with the flight time of 4 hours. The flight was performed in the altitude of about 1000 m and at the speed of about 220-250 km during the observation, corresponding to an expected ground resolution of about 300 m. The PLMR instrument flown on a small aircraft operates at 1.413 GHz (L-band), with both H- and V-polarizations at incidence angles of ±7.5°, ±21.5° and ±38.5°. PLMR ‘warm’ and ‘cold’ calibrations were performed before and after each flight. The processed PLMR data include 2 DAT files (v-pol and h-pol separately) and 1 KMZ file for each flying day. The DAT file contains all the TB values together with their corresponding beam ID, incidence angle, location, time stamp (in UTC) and other flight attitude information as per headings. The KMZ file shows the gridded 1-km TB values corrected to 38.5 degrees together with flight lines. Cautions should be taken when using these data, as the RFI contaminations are often higher than expected at v-polarization.