WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission and Landsat TM in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jul. 7, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission and Landsat TM was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jul. 7, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the radiative temperature by the thermal camera (Institute of Remote Sensing Applications) of maize, wheat and the bare land of Yingke oasis maize field at a height of 1.2m above the ground. Optical photos of the scene were also taken. Raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001) was archived in IMG format, and blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived as Excel files. (2) Maize albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (3) Reflectance spectra in Yingke oasis maize field by ASD FieldSpec (350-1603nm) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS). The grey board and the black and white cloth were also used for calibration on the CCD camera. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (4) the component temperature by the handheld radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field and Huazhaizi desert maize field. For maize, the component temperature included the vertical canopy temperature, the bare land temperature and the plastic film temperature; for the wheat, it included the vertical canopy temperature, the half height temperature, the lower part temperature and the bare land temperature. The data included raw data (in Word format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (5) the radiative temperature by the handheld radiometer (emissivity = 1.0) in Yingke oasis maize field (for the canopy mean temperature), Huazhaizi desert maize field (for the transect temperature), Zhangye airport (the black and white cloth for calibration) and Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot (the diagonal radiative temperature and the radiative temperature of 30m*30m subplot). The component temperature was also measured. The data included raw data (in Word format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (as Excel files). (6) The air temperature (°C) , the soy bean leaf temperature (°C) and the maize leaf temperature (°C) by SPAD (from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS)) in Yingke oasis maize field. Besides, spectrum, photosynthesis, fluorescence and chlorophyll were measured as well. (7) The leaf reflectance spectra ASD (serial number: 64831) and 50% grey board from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS). The spectral DN was changed into radiance based on the 50% grey board calibration data and calibration lamp data, which could further be transformed into Excel format. Moreover, the solar radiance=the reference board radiance/the reference reflectance. (8) The leaf fluorescence by ImagingPam from Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. YII = (Fm'-F)/Fm' was applied for caculation, F indicating fluorescence before saturating flash light, Fm' the maximum fluorescence before saturating flash light, and YII the quantum yield of photosystem II. Data were archived in pim and could be read by ImagingPam, which can be downloaded from http://www.zealquest.com. (9) The leaf photosynthesis by LI-6400. (10) The radiative temperature by the automatic thermometer (FOV: 10°; emissivity: 0.95), observing straight downwards at intervals of 1s in Yingke oasis maize field and Huazhaizi desert maize field. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (11) FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR-surface transmissionPAR-canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in the table format of Word. (12) Atmospheric parameters near Daman Water Management office by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, Rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number.

0 2019-09-12

Dataset of PM2.5 aerosol particle concentration at different locations on Tibetan Plateau (2018)

This data set includes the mass concentration of atmospheric particles with the aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micron meters (PM2.5, unit: μg/m3), and the meteorological data such as temperature (Celsius degree), humidity (%) air pressure (hPa). PM2.5 aerosol particles can be floated in the atmosphere for a long time and can be transported to long range. It has important impact on the air quality and visibility, and is a essential index of air quality. The higher its concentration is, the more serious the air pollution. The PM2.5 data is produced at the interval of 5 min, which enable the key data for analysis on the spatiotemporal characteristics of atmospheric particles on the Tibetan Plateau on different tiem scale, such as hourly, daily, monthly and yearly.

0 2019-09-12

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with EO-1 Hyperion in the Yingke oasis foci experimental area during the pre-observation period ( Sep. 5 - Sep. 10, 2007 )

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with EO-1 Hyperion was obtained in the Yingke oasis foci experimental area from Sep. 5 to Sep. 10, 2007 during the pre-observation period. It was carried out by the 3rd and 2nd sub-projects of CAS’s West Action Plan along Zhangye city-Yingke oasis-Huazhaizi, and on the very day of 10, one scene of Hyperion was captured. sampling plot time north latitude east longitude elevation notes 1 9:58 38°53′53.2″ 100°26′09.7″ 1500 cauliflower land east to the road 2 10:51 38°52′39.8″ 100°25′33.1″ 1510 cabbage land east to the road 3 11:35 38°52′39.0″ 100°25′34.6″ 1510 east to No. 2 sampling plot, maize and intercropping wheat reaped 4 12:24 38°51′53.0″ 100°25′08.0″ 1510 maize seed 5 13:08 38°51′54.2″ 100°25′09.5″ 1520 north to No. 4 sampling plot, maize and intercropping wheat reaped 6 14:40 38°51′23.5″ 100°24′45.0″ 1510 west to the road, maize seed, serious blights (red spider) 7 15:40 38°49′26.6″ 100°23′23.7″ 1540 intercrop land of sea buckthorn and beet 8 16:18 38°49′06.9″ 100°23′30.5″ 1540 tomato land, rich of amaranth weeds 9 16:18 38°49′06.4″ 100°23′30.8″ 1540 beet land 10 16:18 38°49′06.9″ 100°23′30.5″ 1540 tomato land with less weeds 11 10:30 38°48′28.3″ 100°24′11.4″ 1540 sea buckthorn seedling land west to the road 12 11:24 38°48′09.3″ 100°24′10.1″ 1550 sun flower land east to the road, intercropping wheat reaped 13 12:38 38°46′16.3″ 100°23′14.2″ 1600 dry rice land 14 12:45 38°46′16.2″ 100°23′14.0″ 1600 rape land 15 12:54 38°46′15.6″ 100°23′13.8″ 1600 buckwheat land 16 14:52 38°45′55.5″ 100°23′00.1″ 1610 maize (without intercrop) 17 15:28 38°45′57.5″ 100°22′28.3″ 1630 maize (without intercrop) 18 16:20 38°43′17.3″ 100°22′53.4″ 1730 gobi (Bassia dasyphylla and margarite dominate) 19 17:40 38°42′31.8″ 100°22′56.8″ 1780 gobi (Bassia dasyphylla and Sympegma regelii dominate) 20 10:27 38°36′25.1″ 100°20′33.2″ 2260 wheatgrass dominates 21 11:10 38°36′24.4″ 100°20′38.1″ 2260 abandoned composite land 22 11:30 2260 near site 22, wheatgrass and composite cenosis 23 bare land 24 13:09 38°38′46.3″ 100°23′08.5″ 2030 alfalfa land 25 14:39 38°44′30.8″ 100°22′41.0″ 1660 poplar 26 9:47 38°58′11.4″ 100°26′18.3″ 1460 rice land Observation items included: (1) quadrat surveys (2) LAI by LAI-2000 (3) ground object reflectance spectra by ASD FieldSpec Pro (350-2500nm)from Gansu Meteorological Administration (4) the land surface temperature and the canopy radiative temperature by the hand-held thermal infrared sensor (5) the photosynthesis rate by LI-6400 (6) the radiative temperature by ThermaCAM SC2000 (7) Atmospheric parameters by CE318 to retrieve the total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, and various parameters at 550nm to obtain horizontal visibility with the help of MODTRAN or 6S codes (8) chlorophyll consistency by portable SPAD Those provide reliable ground data for developing and validating retrieval meathods of biophysical parameters from EO-1 Hyperion images.

0 2019-09-12

The dataset of atmospheric chemical composition in Namcu and Muztagh Ata (2005-2009)

The data include three data sets of Namcu and Muztagh Ata: an atmospheric aerosol data set of monthly average values of TSP, lithium, sodium and other elements; an atmospheric precipitation chemical data set of monthly average values of soluble sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, calcium ions and other ions; and a data set of chemical compositions of snow ice in the Zhadang Glacier of Namcu Basin of the concentrations of soluble sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, calcium ions and other ions in snow pits collected in different months. The data can be used in conducting located observations of atmospheric aerosol element content, precipitation chemistry, and glacier snow ice chemical records in the Namco and Muztagh Ata areas. The samples were processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes of CAS using ICS2500 and ICS2000 ion-chromatographic analyzers to determine the concentration of soluble anions and cations in the samples. Data collection and processing: 1. The automatic rain gauges were erected in the typical regions of the Tibetan Plateau (the Namco Basin and the Muztagh Ata Peak area) to collect precipitation samples. The precipitation samples were collected using a SYC-2 type rainfall sampler that comprised a collector, rain sensor and gland drive. The sample collector was provided with a rain collection bucket and a dust collection bucket, and the weather condition was sensed by the rain sensor. The rain collection bucket would be opened when it started to rain, and the gland would be pressed onto the dust collection bucket. Meanwhile, the date and the rain start and end times were automatically recorded. When the rain stopped, the gland automatically flipped to the rain collection bucket to complete a rainfall record. The collected samples were placed in 20 mL clean high-density polyethylene plastic bottles and refrigerated in a -20 °C refrigerator. They were frozen during transportation and storage until right before being analyzed, when they would be taken from the refrigerator and thawed at room temperature (20 °C). They were then processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes CAS using ICS2500 and ICS2000 ion-chromatographic analyzers to determine the concentration of soluble anions and cations in the precipitation. 2. The atmospheric aerosol sampler installed at Namco Station was 4 m above the ground and included a vacuum pump, which was powered by solar panels and batteries. The air flux was recorded by an automatic flow meter, and the instantaneous flow rate was approximately 16.7 L/min. The air flux took the meteorological parameter conversion of the Namco area as the standard volume. A Teflon filter with a diameter of 47 mm and a pore size of 0.4 & mu; m was used. The sample interval was 7 days, and the total sample flow rate of each sample was approximately 120-150 m³. Each sample was individually placed in a disposable filter cartridge and stored at low temperature in a refrigerator. Before and after sampling, the filter was placed in a constant temperature (20 ± 5 °C) and constant humidity (40 & plusmn; 2%) environment for 48 hours and weighed with a 1/10000 electronic balance (AUW220D, Shimadu); the difference between the weights before and after was the weight of the aerosol sample on the filter. The collected samples were processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes CAS by ICP-MS to determine the concentrations of 18 elements. Strict measures were taken during indoor and outdoor operations to prevent possible contamination. 3. A precleaned plastic shovel was used to collect a sample every 5 cm from the lower part of the snow pit (samples were collected every 10 cm in some snow pits). The samples were dissolved at room temperature, placed in 20 mL clean high-density polyethylene plastic bottles and stored in a refrigerator at -20 °C. The samples were frozen during transportation and storage until they were taken out of the refrigerator before the analysis and melted at room temperature. The samples were processed at the Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes CAS using ICS2500 and ICS2000 ion-chromatographic analyzers to determine the concentrations of soluble anions and cations in the samples. Clean clothing, disposable masks and plastic gloves should be worn during the manual collection of glacier snow ice chemical samples to prevent contamination. The data set was processed by forming a continuous sequence of monthly mean values after the raw data were quality controlled. It meets the accuracy of routine monitoring research on precipitation, aerosol, snow and ice records in China and the world and is satisfactory for comparative study with relevant climate change records.

0 2019-09-12

HiWATER: Dataset of sun photometer observations in the middle and upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin (2012)

The object of this dataset is to support the atmospheric correction data for the satellite and airborne remote-sensing. It provides the atmospheric aerosol and the column content of water vapor. The dataset is sectioned into two parts: the conventional observations data and the observations data synchronized with the airborne experiments. The instrument was on the roof of the 7# in the Wuxing Jiayuan community from 1 to 24 in June. After 25 June, it was moved to the ditch in the south of the Supperstaiton 15. The dataset provide the raw observations data and the retrieval data which contains the atmosphere aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the wavebands at the center of 1640 nm, 1020 nm, 936 nm, 870 nm, 670 nm, 500 nm, 440 nm, 380 nm and 340 nm, respectively, and the water vapor content is retrieved from the band data with a centroid wavelength of 936 nm. The continuous data was obtained from the 1 June to 20 September in 2012 with a one minute temporal resolution. The time used in this dataset is in UTC+8 Time. Instrument: The sun photometer is employed to measure the character of atmosphere. In HiWATER, the CE318-NE was used.

0 2019-09-12

The 7000 years of isotope and geochemical data of the Puruogangri Ice Sheet (2000)

This data set comprises the oxygen isotope and geochemical data of two deep-drilled ice cores drilled in the Puruogangri ice sheet (33°55'N, 89°05'E, altitude: 6070 meters) in the central Tibetan Plateau in 2000. The ice core depths are 118.4 and 214.7 meters, respectively. Source of the data: National Centers for Environmental Information (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/ice-core) . The data set contains 6 tables, which are the average values of 1 oxygen isotope per meter of the Puruogangri ice core, the 10-year average data of 1 oxygen isotope of the Puruogangri ice core, the average values of 2 oxygen isotope and the soluble aerosol concentrations per meter of the Puruogangri ice core, the 5-year average data of 2 oxygen isotope and aerosol concentrations of Puruogangri ice core, 10-year average data of 2 oxygen isotope and aerosol concentrations of the Puruogangri ice core, and the 100-year average values of 2 oxygen isotopic and aerosol concentrations of the Puruogangri ice core. The information on the fields is as follows: Table 1: the average values of 1 oxygen isotope per meter of the Puruogangri ice core Field: Field Name [Dimensions (Unit of Measure)] Field 1: Depth [m] Field 2: δ18° [‰] Table 2: the 10-year average data of 1 oxygen isotope of the Puruogangri ice core Field: Field Name [Dimensions (Unit of Measure)] Field 1: Start time [Dimensionless] Field 2: End time [Dimensionless] Field 3: δ18° [‰] Table 3: the average values of 2 oxygen isotope and soluble aerosol concentration per meter of the Puruogangri ice core Field: Field Name [Dimensions (Unit of Measure)] Field 1: Depth [m] Field 2: Dust (diameter 0.63-20 um) [particles/mL] Field 3: 18° [‰] Field 4: F- [ppb] Field 5: Cl- [ppb] Field 6: SO42- [ppb] Field 7: NO3- [ppb] Field 8: Na+ [ppb] Field 9: NH4+ [ppb] Field 10: K+ [ppb] Field 11: Mg2+ [ppb] Field 12: Ca2+ [ppb] Table 4: the 5-year average data of 2 oxygen isotope and aerosol concentration of the Puruogangri ice core Field: Field Name [Dimensions (Unit of Measure)] Field 1: Start time [Dimensionless] Field 2: End time [Dimensionless] Field 3: δ18° [‰] Field 4: Accumulation [cm/yr] Field 5: Dust (diameter 0.63-20 um) [particles/mL] Field 6: F- [ppb] Field 7: Cl- [ppb] Field 8: SO42- [ppb] Field 9: NO3- [ppb] Field 10: Na+ [ppb] Field 11: NH4+ [ppb] Field 12: K+ [ppb] Field 13: Mg2+ [ppb] Field 14: Ca2+ [ppb] Table 5: the 10-year average data of 2 oxygen isotope and aerosol concentrations of the Puruogangri ice core Field: Field Name [Dimensions (Unit of Measure)] Field 1: Start time [Dimensionless] Field 2: End time [Dimensionless] Field 3: δ18° [‰] Field 4: Dust (diameter 0.63-20 um) [particles/mL] Field 5: F- [ppb] Field 6: Cl- [ppb] Field 7: SO42- [ppb] Field 8: NO3- [ppb] Field 9: Na+ [ppb] Field 10: NH4+ [ppb] Field 11: K+ [ppb] Field 12: Mg2+ [ppb] Field 13: Ca2+ [ppb] Table 6: the 100-year average values of 2 oxygen isotopic and aerosol concentrations of the Puruogangri ice core Field: Field Name [Dimensions (Unit of Measure)] Field 1: The last year of the interval [Dimensionless] Field 2: δ18° [‰] Field 3: Dust (diameter 0.63-20 um) [particles/mL] Field 4: F- [ppb] Field 5: Cl- [ppb] Field 6: SO42- [ppb] Field 7: NO3- [ppb] Field 8: Na+ [ppb] Field 9: NH4+ [ppb] Field 10: K+ [ppb] Field 11: Mg2+ [ppb] Field 12: Ca2+ [ppb]

0 2019-09-12

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Landsat TM in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 20, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Landsat TM was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 20, 2008. Observation items included: (1) LAI in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum leaf length and width of each alfalfa and barley were measured. Data were archived in Excel format. (2) Reflectance spectra in Yingke oasis maize field by ASD FieldSpec (350-2500nm, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS), and in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by ASD FieldSpec (350-1603nm, the vertical observation and the transect observation for reaumuria soongorica and the bare land) from Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. The grey board and the black and white cloth were also used for calibration spectrum. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (3) the radiative temperature by 3 handheld radiometers in Yingke oasis maize field (Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, BNU and Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources respectively, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation), and by 3 handheld infrared thermometers in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot (the vertical vegetation and bare land observation). The data included raw data (in Word format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (4) the radiative temperature of maize, wheat and the bare land of Yingke oasis maize field by ThermaCAM SC2000 (1.2m above the ground, FOV = 24°×18°). The data included raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (archived in Excel format). (5) Photosynthesis of maize, wheat and the bare land of Yingke oasis maize field by LI6400, carried out according to WATER specifications. Raw data were archived in the user-defined format (by notepat.exe) and processed data were in Excel format. (6) Maize albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (7) Atmospheric parameters in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (8) Coverage fraction of Reaumuria soongorica by the self-made coverage instrument and the camera (2.5m-3.5m above the ground) in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot. Based on the length of the measuring tape and the bamboo pole, the size of the photo can be decided. GPS data was used for the location and the technology LAB was used to retieve the coverage fractionof the green vegetation. Besides, such related information as the surrounding environment was also recorded. Data included the vegetation iamge and coverage (by .exe). (9) The radiative temperature of Reaumuria soongorica canopy and the bare land by 2 fixed automatic thermometers (FOV: 10°; emissivity: 0.95) in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot, observing straight downwards at intervals of 1s. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne imaging spectrometer (OMIS-II) mission in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jun. 4, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne imaging spectrometer (OMIS-II) mission was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jun. 4, 2008. Observation items included: (1) ground object reflectance spectra of maize and wheat in Yingke oasis maize field by ASD FieldSpec (350~2500 nm, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS); and of the black and white cloth, the water body, vegetation and the cement floor in the resort calibration site by ASD (350-2500nm, fixed points observation) from BNU. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (2) The radiative temperature in Yingke oasis maize field (the transect observation), Yingke oasis wheat field (the transect observation), the maize field (intensive) near the resort (the transect observation) and Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot (the diagonal and the fixed point observation) by the handheld infrared thermometer (emissivity: 1.00). As for the fixed point observation, 25 corner points were chosen in the plot of 30m×30m, and at each point, the bare land was measured twice and the vegetation once. Raw data (in Word format), blackbody calibrated data and processed data (in Excel format) were all archived. (3) Atmospheric parameters on the ICBC resort office roof by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications. The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1640nm, 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm, 550nm, 440nm, 380nm and 340nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (4) Photosynthesis of wheat and maize by LI6400 in Yingke oasis maize field, carried out according to WATER specifications. Raw data were archived in the user-defined format (by notepat.exe) and processed data were in Excel format. (5) the radiative temperature vegetation (Reaumuria soongorica) and the bare land in Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot by ThermaCAM SC2000 ( (1.2m above the ground, FOV = 24°×18°),. The data included raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (archived in Excel format). (6) the radiative temperature by the automatic thermometer at nadir in Yingke oasis maize field (2 from BNU, FOV: 10°; emissivity: 0.95, at intervals of 1s, set above the maize canopy and the bare land between ridges and the third from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, emissivity: 1.0, at intervals of 0.05s, set above the maize canopy), Yingke wheat field (one set above the wheat canopy), Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot (one set above the barley canopy), and in the resort calibration site (one for the cement floor). Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (7) Wheat albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (8) Wheat FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR-surface transmissionPAR-canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in the table format of Word. (9) LAI in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum leaf length and width of each maize and wheat were measured. Data were from Jun. 6, 2008, archived in Excel format.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 28, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 28, 2008. Observation items included: (1) Atmospheric parameters in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (2) Photosynthesis by LI-6400. Raw data were archived in the user-defined format (by notepat.exe) and processed data were in Excel format. (3) Reflectance spectra in Yingke oasis maize field by ASD FieldSpec (350-2500nm, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS), and in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by ASD FieldSpec (350-1603nm, the vertical observation and the transect observation for reaumuria soongorica and the bare land) from Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. The grey board and the black and white cloth were also used for calibration spectrum. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (4) Coverage fraction of maize and wheat by the self-made instrument and the camera (2.5m-3.5m above the ground) in Yingke oasis maize field. Based on the length of the measuring tape and the bamboo pole, the size of the photo can be decided. GPS date were also collected and the technology LAB was applied to retrieve the coverage of the green vegetation. Besides, such related information as the surrounding environment was also recorded. Data included the primarily measured image and final fraction of vegetation coverage. (5) the radiative temperature of maize, wheat and the bare land in Yingke oasis maize field by ThermaCAM SC2000 using ThermaCAM SC2000 (1.2m above the ground, FOV = 24°×18°),. The data included raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (archived in Excel format). (6) the radiative temperature by the automatic thermometer (FOV: 10°; emissivity: 0.95), 3 for maize canopy, the bare land and wheat canopy in Yingke oasis maize field, one for maize canopy in Huazhaizi desert maize field, and 2 for vegetation and the desert bare land in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot,at nadir at a time interval of one second. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (7) Maize albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (8) LAI in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum leaf length and width of each maize and wheat were measured. Data were archived in Excel format. (9) FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) of maize and wheat by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR-surface transmissionPAR-canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in the table format of Word. (10) The radiative temperature in Yingke oasis maize field (the transect observation), Yingke oasis wheat field (the transect observation), Huazhaizi desert maize field (the transect observation) and Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot (the diagonal observation) by the handheld infrared thermometer (BNU and Institute of Remote Sensing Applications). Raw data (in Word format), blackbody calibrated data and processed data (in Excel format) were all archived.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 30, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on May 30, 2008. WiDAS, composed of four CCD cameras, one mid-infrared thermal imager (AGEMA 550), and one infrared thermal imager (S60), can acquire CCD, MIR and TIR band data. The simultaneous ground data included: (1) The radiative temperature by the handheld radiometer (BNU) in Yingke oasis maize field and Huazhaizi desert maize field (the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation for both fields), and Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot (the diagonal observation). The data included raw data (in .doc format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (2) The component temperature of maize and wheat by the handheld radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field, Yingke wheat field and Huazhaizi desert maize field. For maize, the component temperature included the vertical canopy temperature, the bare land temperature and the plastic film temperature; for the wheat, it included the vertical canopy temperature, the half height temperature, the lower part temperature and the bare land temperature. The data included raw data (in .doc format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (3) The radiative temperature of maize, wheat and the bare land in Yingke oasis maize field by ThermaCAM SC2000 (1.2m above the ground, FOV = 24°×18°), The data included raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (archived in Excel format). (4) The radiative temperature and the canopy multi-angle radiative temperature by the fixed automatic thermometer (FOV: 10°; emissivity: 1.0), observing straight downwards at intervals of 1s in Yingke oasis maize field (2 instruments for maize canopy), Huazhaizi desert maize field (only one for maize canopy) and Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot (two for reaumuria soongorica canopy and the bare land). The thermal infrared remote sensing calibration was carried out in the resort plot. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (5) Coverage fraction of maize and wheat by the self-made instrument and the camera (2.5m-3.5m above the ground) in Yingke oasis maize field. Based on the length of the measuring tape and the bamboo pole, the size of the photo can be decided. GPS date were also collected and the technology LAB was applied to retrieve the coverage of the green vegetation. Besides, such related information as the surrounding environment was also recorded. Data included the primarily measured image and final fraction of vegetation coverage. (6) Reflectance spectra of Yingke oasis maize field (350-2500nm, from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications) and resort calibration site (350-2500nm, from Beijing Univeristy) by ASD (Analytical Sepctral Devices); BRDF by the self-made observation platform. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (7) Atmospheric parameters at the resort calibration site by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (8) Soil moisture (0-40cm) by the cutting ring, the soil temperature by the thermocouple thermometer, roughness by the self-made roughness board and the camera in Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot. Sample points were selected every 30m along the diagonals. Data were all archived in Excel format. (9) Maize albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (10) FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR-surface transmissionPAR-canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in Word. LAI in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum leaf length and width of each maize and wheat were measured. Data were archived in Excel format of May 31.

0 2019-05-23