Aerosol optical property dataset of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observation (2009-2016)
  • 2019-09-15
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The measurement data of the sun spectrophotometer can be directly used to perform inversion on the optical thickness of the non-water vapor channel, Rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical thickness, and moisture content of the atmospheric air column (using the measurement data at 936 nm of the water vapor channel). The aerosol optical property data set of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observations was obtained by adopting the Cimel 318 sun photometer, and both the Mt. Qomolangma and Namco stations were involved. The temporal coverage of the data is from 2009 to 2016, and the temporal resolution is one day. The sun photometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared. The center wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm. The field angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. According to the direct solar radiation, the aerosol optical thickness of 6 bands can be obtained, and the estimated accuracy is 0.01 to 0.02. Finally, the AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain aerosol optical thickness, Angstrom index, particle size spectrum, single scattering albedo, phase function, birefringence index, asymmetry factor, etc.

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WATER: Dateset of sun photometer observations in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar, 2008
  • 2019-09-15
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The dateset of sun photometer observations was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from Mar. 7 to 17, 2008, simultaneous with MODIS and TM. Those provide reliable data for atmosphere correction of the same period in this area. Atmospheric parameters were measured by CE318. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired. Column water vapor can also be retrieved according to data in 936 nm. The dataset archived in txt files includes processed data on Mar. 7, 14 and 17 respectively.

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WATER: Dataset of sun photometer observations in the Linze grassland foci experimental area (2008)
  • 2019-09-15
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The dataset of sun photometer observations was obtained in Linze grassland station, the reed plot A, the saline plot B, the barley plot E, the observation stationof the Linze grassland foci experimental areaand Jingdu hotel of Zhangye city. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318 from May 30 to Jun. 11, 2008. And from Jun. 15 to Jul.11, the data of 1640nm, 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm, 550nm, 440nm, 380nm and 340nm were acquired. Both measurements were carried out at intervals of 1 minute. Optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, air temperature and pressure near land surface, the solar azimuth and zenith could all be further retrieved. Readme file was attached for detail.

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Dataset of black carbon concentration at Mt. Everest Station from May 2015 to May 2017
  • 2019-09-13
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Black carbon(BC) is a carbonaceous aerosol that mainly emitted from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or biomass. As fine particles in the atmosphere with light-absorbing characteristic, BC can significantly reduce the surface albedo when deposits on snow and ice and accelerate the melting of glaciers and snow cover. New Aethalometer model AE-33 acquires the real-time BC concentration according to the light absorption and attenuation characteristics from the different wavelengths. In addition, AE-33 uses dual-spot measurements, which can compensate for the “spot loading effect” and obtain high-quality BC concentrations. By using the real-time observation data measured by AE-33 at Mt. Everest Station, we analyzed the seasonal and diurnal variations of BC and its sources and transport processes, and we also investigated the transport mechanisms of serious polluted episodes. That can provide basis for future works on assessment of climate effects caused by BC in this region.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Envisat ASAR in the arid region hydrological experimental area during the pre-observation period on Sep. 19, 2007
  • 2019-09-13
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The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in the arid region hydrological experimental area on Sep. 19, 2007 during the pre-observation period. One scene of Envisat ASAR image was captured on Sep. 19. The data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:29 BJT. Those provide reliable ground data for remote sensing retrieval and validation of soil moisture from Envisat ASAR image. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture measured by the cutting ring method in Linze reed land, Zhangye farmland, Zhangye gobi, Linze maize land, Linze alfalfa land, Zhangye weather station, and Linze wetland. (2) GPS measured by GARMIN GPS 76 (3) vegetation measurements including the vegetation height, the green weight, the dry weight, the sampling method, and descriptions on the land type, uniformity and dry and wet conditions (4) atmospheric parameters at Daman Water Management office measured by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMetext files (.txt) is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) archived as Excel files are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (5) roughness measured by the roughness plate together with the digital camera. The coordinates of the sample would be got with the help of ArcView; and after geometric correction, surface height standard deviation (cm) and correlation length (cm) could be acquired based on the formula listed on pages 234-236, Microwave Remote Sensing (Vol. II). The roughness data were initialized by the sample name, which was followed by the serial number, the name of the file, standard deviation and correlation length. Each text files (.txt) file is matched with one sample photo and standard deviation and correlation length represent the roughness. In addition, the length of 101 radius is also included for further checking.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Landsat TM in the Biandukou foci experimental area (Mar. 17, 2008)
  • 2019-09-12
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The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Landsat TM was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from 11:10-13:30 on Mar. 17, 2008. Those provide reliable ground data for objects modelling and background modelling, remote sensing image simulation and scaling. Simultaneous with the satellite overpass, numerous ground data were collected, spectrum (ASD Fieldspec FRTM (Boulder, Co, USA), 350nm-2500nm, 3nm for the visible near-infrared band and 10nm for the shortwave infrared band), the surface temperature, atmospheric parameters, the soil profile gravimetric moisture (0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm), the shallow layer frost depth and the soil roughness in C1, G1, W1, W2, B1 and B2, mostly the grassland, the wheat stubble land, the deep plowed land and the rape stubble land. The quadrates of 90m×90m and 450m×450m were compartmentalized into 81 subgrids of 10m×10m and 50m×50m. Based on the resolution of 30m×30m and 150m×150m, the influence of adjacent eight pixels on the center pixel was studied. Section lines of each subgrid were adopted to acquire the pixel spectrum, which were measured more than once for the mean value. The spectrum data were archived in the ASCII format, with the first five rows as the file header and the following two columns as wavelength (nm) and reflectance (percentage) respectively. The .txt file was not reflectance but intermediate file for further calculation. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro). The surface radiative temperature and the physical temperature were measured by the handheld infrared thermometer. Besides, the cover type was also recorded. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office. Atmospheric parameters were measured by CE318 to retrieve the total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, and various parameters at 550nm to obtain horizontal visibility with the help of MODTRAN or 6S. Those provide reliable data for atmosphere correction of the same period in this area. The gravimetric soil moisture (samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) was measured by the microwave drying method. The frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office. Nine data files were included, TM data, CE318 data, B1, B2, C1, G1, W1 and W2.

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Black carbon concentration at 5 stations over Tibetan Plateau (2018)
  • 2019-09-12
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As the “water tower of Asia”, Tibetan Plateau (TP) are the resource of major rivers in Asia. Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from surrounding regions can be transported to the inner TP by atmospheric circulation and consequently deposited in snow, which can significantly influence precipitation and mass balance of glaciers. Five Aethalometers are used to mornitoring black carbon concentration at 5 stations on the Tibetan Plateau. It can provide basic dataset to study the effects of BC to the environment and climate over the Tibetan Plateau, as well as the pollutants transport.

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SRAP AOD dataset of Asia (2002-2011)
  • 2019-09-12
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The “China Collection 1.0" aerosol optical depth (AOD) data set was produced using visible light wave remote sensing inversion. The raw data come from the MODIS sensors on Terra and Aqua. The temporal coverage of the data is from 2002 to 2011, the temporal resolution is daily, the spatial coverage is the Asian continent, and the spatial resolution is 0.1°. The remote sensing inversion method uses the independently developed SRAP algorithm to invert the aerosol optical depth over the land. The algorithm takes the BRDF characteristics of the surface into consideration, which makes it applicable to aerosol optical depth inversion on bright and dark surfaces. In addition, aerosol products over the ocean of MOD04/MYD04 are superimposed. The verification of the measured site shows that the relative deviation of the aerosol optical depth data in Asia is within 20%. The data are stored as an hdf file each day, each consisting of Terra AOD and Aqua AOD at 550 nm.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Landsat TM in the Linze grassland and Linze station foci experimental area during the pre-observation period (on Sep. 23, 2007)
  • 2019-09-12
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The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Landsat TM was obtained in the Linze grassland and Linze station foci experimental area on Sep. 23, 2007 during the pre-observation periods, and one scene was captured well. These data can provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of land surface temperatures with EO-1 Hyperion remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) the land surface radiative temperature by the hand-held infrared thermometer, which was calibrated; (2) GPS by GARMIN GPS 76; (3) atmospheric parameters at Daman Water Management office measured by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. These data include the raw data in .k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin software. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel contain optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (4) ground-based land surface temperature measurements by the thermal imager in the Heihe gobi, west of Zhangye city.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on June 1, 2008
  • 2019-09-12
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The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jun. 1, 2008. WiDAS, composed of four CCD cameras, one mid-infrared thermal imager (AGEMA 550), and one infrared thermal imager (S60), can acquire CCD, MIR and TIR band data. The simultaneous ground data included: (1) The radiative temperature of maize, wheat and the bare land in Yingke oasis maize field and Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot by ThermaCAM SC2000 (1.2m above the ground, FOV = 24°×18°). The data included raw data (read by ThermaCAM Researcher 2001), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (archived in Excel format). (2) The radiative temperature by the automatic thermometer (FOV: 10°; emissivity: 1.0; from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications), observing straight downwards at intervals of 1s in Yingke oasis maize field. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (3) FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) of maize and wheat by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR-surface transmissionPAR-canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in Excel format. (4) The reflectance spectra by ASD in Yingke oasis maize field (350-2500nm , from BNU, the vertical canopy observation and the transect observation), and Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot (350-2500nm , from Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, the NE-SW diagonal observation at intervals of 30m). The data included raw data (in .doc format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (5) Maize albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (6) The radiative temperature by the handheld radiometer in Yingke oasis maize field (from BNU, the vertical canopy observation, the transect observation and the diagonal observation), Yingke oasis wheat field (only for the transect temperature), and Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot (the NE-SW diagonal observation). Besides, the maize radiative temperature and the physical temperature were also measured both by the handheld radiometer and the probe thermometer in the maize plot of 30m near the resort. The data included raw data (in .doc format), recorded data and the blackbody calibrated data (in Excel format). (7) Atmospheric parameters on the playroom roof at the resort by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The underlying surface was mainly composed of crops and the forest (1526m high). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (8) Narrow channel emissivity of the bare land and vegetation by the W-shaped determinator in Huazhaizi desert No. 1 plot. Four circumstances should be considered for emissivity, with the lid plus the au-plating board, the au-plating board only, the lid only and without both. Data were archived in Word.

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