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Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Daman Superstation, 2018)
  • 2019-07-31
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This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Daman Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (AV-14TH;3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2.5 m, 8 m in west of tower), four-component radiometer (PIR&PSP; 12 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 12 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI190SB; 12 m, towards south, vertically upward; another four photosynthetically active radiation, PQS-1; two above the plants (12 m) and two below the plants (0.3 m), towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the vegetation; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30m, and WD_40 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2, and Gs_3, between plants) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), above the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day.The meterological data during September 17 and November 7 and TCAV data after November 7 were wrong because the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.

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HiWATER: Dataset of surface temperature and albedo on village roof in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin
  • 2019-05-23
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A land surface temperature and upward/downward shortwave radiation observation system was set up on the roof, which locate on the edge of No.4 eddy covariance system (EC4) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12). This observation site can offer in situ calibration data for TASI, WiDAS and L band sensor used in aerospace experiment. Observation Site: This point is located in a large and homogeneous adobe roof in Shiqiao Village, Xiaoman Town, Zhangye City. Land surface of observation site is relatively flat and uniform, and also not tall trees around. It’s about 20 meters away from southwest No.4 eddy covariance system (EC4) observation points. The coordinates of this site: 38°52′38.50″ N,100°21′27.00″ E。 Observation Instrument: Observation system is composed of a SI-111 infrared radiometer (Campbell, USA) installed vertically downward, two CMP3 pyranometer (Kipp&Zonen, Netherlands) one upward, another downward. Observation height is 1.0 m, data logging by a Campbell CR850 logger. Sensor orientation: Observation mounting arm has 3 m long, parallel to roof edge, azimuth angle: 156° (East by south 66°) Observation Time: This site operates from 23 June, 2012 to 20 September, 2012. Observation data laagered by every 5 seconds uninterrupted. Output data contained sample data of every 5 seconds and mean data of 1 minute. Accessory data: Land surface (adobe roof) temperature, downward/upward total solar radiation, surface albedo. Dataset is stored in *.dat file, which can be read by Microsoft excel or other text processing software (UltraEdit, et. al). Table heads meaning: Rs_downwell, downward shortwave radiation (W/m^2); Rs_upwell, upward (reflect) shortwave radiation (W/m^2); albedo, calculate by Rs_upwell/ Rs_downwell. SBT_C, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃); Target_C, Target of surface temperature (℃). Dataset is stored day by day, named as: data format + site name + interval time + date + time. The detailed information about data item showed in data header introduction in dataset.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from 11:20 to 12:30BJT on Mar. 19, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. (2) the surface radiative temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer and the physical temperature by the thermocouple. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. (3) the soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) by the microwave drying method. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. (4) photos of each sampling point in .jpg for further reference. Six data files were included, the ground-based K-band microwave radiometer, the ground-based L-band microwave radiometer, the frost depth, soil moisture, the surface temperature and the surface conditions.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR in the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates of the A'rou foci experimental area on Jul. 14, 2008. The Envisat ASAR data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:31 BJT. The quadrates were divided into 4×4 subsites, with each one spanning a 30×30 m2 plot. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture from active remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture by POGO soil sensor in No. 1, 2 and 3 quadrates; 25 corner points of each subsite were chosen for the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity; (2) the soil temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer 3# and 5# from BNU in No. 1 quadrate, 1# and 4# in No. 2 quadrate, and 2# and 6# in No. 3 quadrate; 25 corner points of each subsite were measured twice by two groups, and time, the maximum, the minimum and the mean value, and the land cover types were all recorded. (3) spectrum of the grassland, the bare land and the stellera by the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F. The dataset includes ASAR images, preprocessed data of the thermal infrared spectrometer, 102F, the surface temperature and soil moisture synchronizing with Envisat ASAR.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with MODIS in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 12, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with MODIS was obtained in C1, G1 and B2 of the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 12, 2008. Observation items included: (1) the surface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer in C1, G1 and B2 from 11:30 to 12:15. The underlying surface was the deep plowed land, the rape stubble and the grassland. (2) the gravimetric soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm, 3-5cm, 5-10cm and 10-20cm) by the microwave drying method. (3) the frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The land cover type photos were archived. Four data files were archived, MODIS data, C1 (the land cover type, the surface temperature and the vegetation parameters), G1 ( the surface temperature, the frost depth and the soil moisture) and B2 (the surface temperature, the frost depth and the soil moisture) data.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER in the Linze grassland foci experimental area on May 28, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER was obtained in the saline plot B, the alfalfa plot D and the barley plot E of the Linze grassland foci experimental area on May 28, 2008. 49 points at intervals of 60m in each plot (360m×360m) were selected and observation items included: (1) the land surface radiative temperature by the hand-held infrared thermometer from east to west in the saline plot B, the alfalfa plot D and the alfalfa plot E. Each point was numbered, such as D22-23, indicating from No. 22 to 23 in the alfalfa plot D. In the salineplot B, 5 measurements were carried out each 5m; in the alfalfa plot D and the barley plot E, measurements were at random. Calibration information was archived in the hand-held infrared thermometer calibration.xls. (2) soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying measured by the cutting ring and the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer in plot B; the soil temperature, soil moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity measured by the POGO soil sensor, and the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer in plot D; soil moisture, soil conductivity, the soil temperature, and the real part of soil complex permittivity were measured by WET, and the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer in plot E. Six Excel files on soil moisture and the land surface radiative temperature in plot B, D and E were archived. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.

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HiWATER: Dataset of surface temperature of water body in Er’ba Reservoir
  • 2019-05-23
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Er’ba Reservoir surface temperature of water body can offer in situ calibration data for TASI, WiDAS and L band sensor used in aerospace experiment. Observation Site: This site is 14 KM away from East of ZhangYe city. It’s located in Er’ba village, JianTan town, ZhangYe city. The coordinates of this site: 38°54′57.14" N, 100°36′57.39" E. Observation Instrument: The observation system consists of two SI-111 infrared radiometers (Campbell, USA) and two 109SS temperature probes (Campbell, USA). Two SI-111 sensors, one installed vertically downward to water surface, another face to south of zenith angle 35°. Temperature probes float under water surface at 0 cm. SI-111 sensor installed at 3.0 m height, 3.4 m away from water edge. Observation Time: This site operates from 27 May, 2012 to 27 September, 2012. Observation data laagered by every 5 seconds uninterrupted. Output data contained sample data of every 5 seconds and mean data of 1 minute. Accessory data: Water surface infrared temperature (by SI-111), sky infrared temperature (by SI-111), water surface temperature (by 109ss) can be obtained. Dataset is stored in *.dat file, which can be read by Microsoft excel or other text processing software (UltraEdit, et. al). Table heads meaning: TarT_Atm, Sky infrared temperature (℃) @ facing south of zenith angle 35°; SBT_Atm, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃) measured sky; TarT_Sur, water surface infrared temperature @ 3.0 m height; SBT_Sur, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃) measured water surface; WaterT_1, WaterT_2, water surface temperature (℃) measured by 109SS temperature probes. Dataset is stored day by day, named as: data format + site name + interval time + date + time. The detailed information about data item showed in data header introduction in dataset.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER in the Linze station foci experimental area on May 28, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with ASTER was obtained in the Linze station foci experimental area on May 28, 2008. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture (0-5cm) measured once by the cutting ring method at the corner points of the 40 subplots of the west-east desert transit zone strip once by cutting ring method in the corner points of nine subplots of the north-south desert transit zone, once by the cutting ring method and once by ML2X Soil Moisture Tachometer in the center points of nine subplots of the farmland. The preprocessed soil volumetric moisture data were archived as Excel files. (2) surface radiative temperature measured by the handheld infrared thermometer (5# and 6# from Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute which were both calibrated) in 40 subplots of the west-east desert transit zone strip (repeated 14-30 times), and nine subplots of the north-south desert transit zone strip (repeated 12-30 times). Data were archived as Excel files. (3) BRDF of maize and desert scrub measured by ASD Spectroradiometer (350~2 500 nm) from BNU, the 40% reference board , two observation platforms of BNU make and one of Institute of Remote Sensing Applications make in Wulidun farmland quadrates and the desert transit zone strips. Raw spectral data were archived as binary files, which were recorded daily in detail, and pre-processed data on reflectance and transmittivity were archived as text files (.txt). (4) LAI measured by two methods in the the Wulidun farmland quadrates and Linze station quadrates. One is manual method. The LAI, plant height and the spacing of selected samples were measured by the ruler and the number of the sapmles in the quadrate were counted. Then the LAI can be calculated. The other method is LI-3100. Data were archived as Excel files.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Linze station foci experimental area on Jul. 4, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Linze station foci experimental area on Jul. 4, 2008. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture (0-5cm) measured by the cutting ring method (50cm^3) from sample points of the P1 to P6 strips (17 sample points each),. Photos were also taken. The preprocessed soil volumetric moisture data were archived as Excel files. (2) surface radiative temperature measured by the three handheld infrared thermometer (5# and 6# from Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, and one from Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, which were all calibrated) from P1 to P6 strips quadrates. There are 34 sample points in total and each was repeated three times synchronizing with the airplane. Photos were taken. Data were archived as Excel files. See the metadata record “WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze station foci experimental area” for more information of the quadrate locations.

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WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Linze grassland foci experimental area on May 25, 2008
  • 2019-05-23
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The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained along the sample lines 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Linze grassland foci experimental area on May 25, 2008. Complementary measurements were carried out along Line 7 on Jun. 2. 25 points at intervals of 100m were selected at each line. Simultaneous with the satellite overpass, numerous ground data were collected, the soil temperature, soil moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity measured by the POGO soil sensor, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer, and the surface radiative temperature measured three times by the hand-held infrared thermometer in L1, L2, L3 and L4; soil volumetric moisture, soil conductivity, the soil temperature, and the real part of soil complex permittivity were measured by WET, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer, and the surface radiative temperature measured three times by the hand-held infrared thermometer in L5 and L6; the soil temperature, soil moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity by the POGO soil sensor, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm measured by the probe thermometer, and the surface radiative temperature measured by the hand-held infrared thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density measured by the cutting ring in L7. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.

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