Snow cover dataset is produced by snow and cloud identification method based on optical instrument observation data, covering the time from 1989 to 2018 (two periods, from January to April and from October to December) and the region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (17°N-41°N, 65°E-106°E) with daily product, which takes equal latitude and longitude projection with 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution, and characterizes whether the ground under clear sky or transparent thin cloud is covered by snow. The input data sources include AVHRR L1 data of NOAA and MetOp serials of satellites, and L1 data corresponding to AVHRR channels taken from TERRA/MODIS. Decision Tree algorithm (DT) with dynamic thresholds is employed independent of cloud mask and its cloud detection emphasizes on reserving snow, particularly under transparency cirrus. It considers a variety of methods for different situations, such as ice-cloud over the water-cloud, snow in forest and sand, thin snow or melting snow, etc. Besides those, setting dynamic threshold based on land-surface type, DEM and season variation, deleting false snow in low latitude forest covered by heavy aerosol or soot, referring to maximum monthly snowlines and minimum snow surface brightness temperature, and optimizing discrimination program, these techniques all contribute to DT. DT discriminates most snow and cloud under normal circumstances, but underestimates snow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in October. Daily product achieves about 95% average coincidence rate of snow and non-snow identification compared to ground-based snow depth observation in years. The dataset is stored in the standard HDF4 files each having two SDSs of snow cover and quality code with the dimensions of 4100-column and 2400-line. Complete attribute descriptions is written in them.
The continuous snow cover area in time and space is one of key elements to study of land surface energy and water exhange, mountain hydrology, land surface model, numerical weather forecast and climate change. However, the large number of clouds causes data gaps in the snow cover area from optical remote sensing. The MODIS observations of Terra and aqua, FY-2E and FY-2F VISSR are used to obtain fractional snow cover (subpixel snow cover) which is less affected by the cloud, and the snow cover of the remaining cloud pixels is supplemented according to the time series information. Finally the cloudless daily snow fraction is obtained. This data set includes the daily fractional snow cover at 5 km spatial resolution in the Tibetan Plateau and China.
This data set includes the observation data of 25 water net sensor network nodes in Babao River Basin in the upper reaches of Heihe River from January 2015 to December 2015. 4cm and 20cm soil moisture / temperature is the basic observation of each node; some nodes also include 10cm soil moisture / temperature, surface infrared radiation temperature, snow depth and precipitation observation. The observation frequency is 5 minutes. The data set can be used for hydrological simulation, data assimilation and remote sensing verification. For details, please refer to "2015 data document 20160501. Docx of water net of Babao River in the upper reaches of Heihe River"
Snow water equivalent (the product of snow depth and density) is an important factor reflecting the change in snow cover on the ground surface, and it is also an important parameter in surface hydrological models and climatic models. As the “Headwaters of Asia”, the Tibetan Plateau is the source of several major rivers, which are fed with glacier and snow meltwater. Based on the sensitivity of passive microwave radiation to snow, these monitoring data enable long-term inversion of snow water equivalents in the High Asia region. The data set includes daily snow water equivalent, monthly snow water equivalent and five-day snow water equivalent, and these data can be applied in analyses of local hydrology, animal husbandry production and other fields.
The variation in the duration of snow on the Tibetan Plateau is relatively great, and the high mountainous areas around the plateau are rich in snow and ice resources. Taking full account of the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau and the snow characteristics in the mountains, the data set adopted AVHRR data to gradually realize generating data products for daily, ten-day, and monthly snow cover areas while maintaining the snow classification accuracy. These data included the daily/10-day/monthly snow cover area data for the Tibetan Plateau from 2007 to 2015, the average accuracy of which is 0.92. It can provide reliable data for snow changes during the historical periods of the Tibetan Plateau.
The long-time series data set of snow cover area on the qinghai-tibet plateau is derived from the fusion of MODIS 005 version and IMS data set, andThe cloud-free products of daily snow cover area were obtained by using interpolation de-cloud algorithm.The projection is latitude and longitude, the spatial resolution is 0.005 degrees (about 500m), and the time is a long time series from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2014. Each file is the result of the proportion of snow cover area on that day, and the value is 0-100 (%). It is the ENVI standard file, The naming convention： ims_mts_yyyyddd.tif, where YYYY stands for year and DDD stands for Julian day (001-365/366).Files can be directly used ENVI or ARCMAP software open view. Document description: 200 snow, 100 lake ice, 25 land, 37 sea
The data set is from February 24, 2000 to December 31, 2004, with a resolution of 0.05 degrees, MODIS data, and the data format is .hdf. It can be opened with HDFView. The data quality is good. The missing dates are as follows: 2000 1 -54 132 219-230 303 2001 111 167-182 2002 079-086 099 105 2003 123 324 351-358 2004 219 349 The number after the year is the nth day of the year Pixel values are as follows: 0: Snow-free land 1-100: Percent snow in cell 111: Night 252: Antarctica 253: Data not mapped 254: Open water (ocean) 255: Fill An example of file naming is as follows: Example: "MOD10C1.A2003121.004.2003142152431.hdf" Where: MOD = MODIS / Terra 2003 = Year of data acquisition 121 = Julian date of data acquisition (day 121) 004 = Version of data type (Version 4) 2003 = Year of production (2003) 142 = Julian date of production (day 142) 152431 = Hour / minute / second of production in GMT (15:24:31) The corner coordinates are: Corner Coordinates: Upper Left (70.0000000, 54.0000000) Lower Left (70.0000000, 3.0000000) Upper Right (138.0000000, 54.0000000) Lower Right (138.0000000, 3.0000000) Among them, Upper Left is the upper left corner, Lower Left is the lower left corner, Upper Right is the upper right corner, and Lower Right is the lower right corner. The number of data rows and columns is 1360, 1020 Geographical latitude and longitude coordinates, the specific information is as follows: Coordinate System is: GEOGCS ["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM ["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID ["Clarke 1866", 6378206.4,294.9786982139006, AUTHORITY ["EPSG", "7008"]]], PRIMEM ["Greenwich", 0], UNIT ["degree", 0.0174532925199433]] Origin = (70.000000000000000, 54.000000000000000)
High Asia is very sensitive to climate change, and is a hot area of global change research. The changes of temperature and precipitation will be reflected in the freezing and thawing time of ice and snow. Satellite microwave remote sensing can provide continuous monitoring ability of ice and snow surface state in time and space. When a small part of ice and snow begins to melt, micro liquid water will also be reflected in active and passive microwave remote sensing signals. In the microwave band, the dielectric constant of ice and liquid water is very different, so it provides a basic theory for the microwave remote sensing monitoring of ice and snow melting. In the case of passive microwave, when ice and snow begin to melt and liquid water appears, its absorption and emissivity increase rapidly, so its emissivity, brightness temperature and backscatter coefficient will also change rapidly. This data set is the initial time of ice and snow melting in the high Asia region retrieved by using the satellite microwave radiometer and scatterometer observations from 1979 to 2018. The passive microwave remote sensing data are SMMR on satellite (1979-1987) and SSM / i-ssmis radiometer on DMSP (1988 present). The active microwave remote sensing data is the QuikSCAT satellite scatterometer (2000-2009).
The map is "1:4 Million Ice, Snow and Frozen Soil Map of China" compiled by Mr. Shi Yafeng and Mr. Meadson. The working map compiled by the map is "Chinese Pinyin Edition of the People's Republic of China", which retains the water system and mountain annotation of the map and adds some mountain annotation. The compilation of frozen soil map is based on the actual data of frozen soil survey and exploration, interpretation of remote sensing data, temperature conditions and topographic characteristics that affect the formation and distribution of frozen soil. The height of glacier snow line is expressed by isolines. Seasonal snow accumulation and seasonal icing are based on the data of 1600 meteorological observation stations and the results of many years of investigation in China. They are expressed by isoline notation and symbols. The selection of cold (periglacial) phenomena is a representative and schematic representation observed on the spot. The boundary line between permafrost and non-permafrost is mapped by calculation based on the field data, and its comprehensive degree is relatively high (Tö pfer, 1982) "China Ice and Snow Frozen Soil Map" reflects the scale, types and characteristics of distribution of glaciers, snow cover, frozen soil and periglacial, as well as its value in scientific research and the prospect of utilization and prevention in production practice. It shows our achievements in glacier and frozen soil research in the past 30 years.