According to the characteristics of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the principles of scientificity, systematization, integrity, operability, measurability, conciseness and independence, the human activity intensity evaluation index system suitable for the Qinghai Tibet Plateau has been constructed, which mainly includes the main human activities such as agricultural and animal husbandry activities, industrial and mining development, urbanization development, tourism activities, major ecological engineering construction, pollutant discharge, etc, On the basis of remote sensing data, ground observation data, meteorological data and social statistical yearbook data, the positive and negative effects of human activities are quantitatively evaluated by AHP, and the intensity and change characteristics of human activities are comprehensively evaluated. The data can not only help to enhance the understanding of the role of human activities in the vegetation change in the sensitive areas of global change, but also provide theoretical basis for the sustainable development of social economy in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and provide scientific basis for protecting the ecological environment of the plateau and building a national ecological security barrier.
Grassland actual net primary production (NPPa) was calculated by CASA model. CASA model was calculated with the combination of satellite-observed NDVI and climate (e.g. temperature, precipitation and radiation) as the driving factors, and other factors, such as land-use change and human harvest from plant material, were reflected by the changes of NDVI. CASA NPP was determined by two variables, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation’ (APAR) and the light-use efficiency (LUE). Grassland potential net primary production (NPPp) was calculated by TEM model. TEM is one of process-based ecosystem model, which was driven by spatially referenced information on vegetation type, climate, elevation, soils, and water availability to calculate the monthly carbon and nitrogen fluxes and pool sizes of terrestrial ecosystems. TEM can be only applied in mature and undisturbed ecosystem without take the effects of land use into consideration due to it was used to make equilibrium predications. Grassland potential aboveground biomass (AGBp) was estimated by random forest (RF) algorithm, using 345 AGB observation data in fenced grasslands and their corresponding climate data, soil data, and topographical data.
This data is the data of automatic weather station (AWS, Campbell company) set up at the top of the mountain in the west slope of Sejila by the comprehensive observation and research station of Southeast Tibet alpine environment of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2016. The geographical coordinates are 29.5919 n, 94.6102 e, with an altitude of 4640 m, and the underlying surface is alpine grassland. The data include daily arithmetic mean data of air temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), wind speed (M / s) and air pressure (MB) and daily accumulated value of precipitation. The original data is an average of 30 minutes before October 2018, and an average of 10 minutes after that. The temperature and humidity are measured by hmp155a temperature and humidity probe. The rainfall instrument model is rg3-m, the atmospheric pressure sensor probe is ptb210, and the wind speed sensor is 05103. These probes are 2 m above the ground. In terms of data quality: the obvious abnormal values are eliminated, the battery is damaged due to snow in the first half of 2019, and the data is missing. The missing temperature data is corrected by using the temperature fitting regression of 43900 m at nearby stations, and the data is yellow. Please pay attention when using it; the monitoring of precipitation starts from August 2019. The data station is a high altitude meteorological station in Southeast Tibet, which will be updated from time to time. It can be used by scientific researchers studying ecology, climate, hydrology, glaciers, etc.
Based on a large number of measured aboveground biomass data of grassland, the temperate grassland types were divided according to the vegetation type map of China in 1980s Based on the Landsat remote sensing data of engine platform, the random forest model of grassland aboveground biomass and remote sensing data was constructed for different grassland types. On the basis of reliable verification, the annual aboveground biomass of grassland from 1993 to 2019 was estimated, and the annual spatial data set of aboveground biomass of temperate grassland in Northern China from 1993 to 2019 was formed. Aboveground biomass is defined as the total amount of organic matter of vegetation living above the ground in unit area. The original grid value has been multiplied by a factor of 100, unit: 0.01 g / m2 (g / m2). This data set can provide a scientific basis for the dynamic monitoring and evaluation of temperate grassland resources and ecological environment in northern China.
Based on a large number of measured aboveground biomass data of grassland, the temperate grassland types were divided according to the vegetation type map of China in 1980s Based on the Landsat remote sensing data of engine platform, the random forest model of grassland aboveground biomass and remote sensing data was constructed for different grassland types. On the basis of reliable verification, the annual aboveground biomass of grassland from 1993 to 2019 was estimated, and the annual spatial data set of aboveground biomass of temperate grassland in Northern China from 1993 to 2019 was formed. This data set can provide a scientific basis for the dynamic monitoring and evaluation of temperate grassland resources and ecological environment in northern China.
The data of farmland distribution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were extracted on the basis of the land use dataset in China (2015). The dataset is mainly based on landsat 8 remote sensing images, which are generated by manual visual interpretation. The land use types mainly include the cultivated land, which is divided into two categories, including paddy land (1) and dry land (2). The spatial resolution of the data is 30m, and the time is 2015. The projection coordinate system is D_Krasovsky_1940_Albers. And the central meridian was 105°E and the two standard latitudes of the projection system were 25°N and 47°N, respectively. The data are stored in TIFF format, named “farmland distribution”, and the data volume is 4.39GB. The data were saved in compressed file format, named “30 m grid data of farmland distribution in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015”. The data can be opened by ArcGIS, QGIS, ENVI, and ERDAS software, which can provide reference for farmland ecosystem management on the QTP.
The Grassland Degradation Assessment Dataset in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is a data set based on the 500m Global Land Degradation Assessment Data (2015), which is evaluated according to the degree of grassland degradation or improvement. In this dataset, the grassland degradation of the QTP was divided into two evaluation systems. At the first level, the grassland degradation assessment was divided into 3 types, including no change type, improvement type and degradation type. At the second level, the grassland degradation assessment on the QTP was divided into 9 types, among which the type with no change was class 1, represented by 0. There were 4 types of improvement: slight improvement (3), relatively significant improvement (6), significant improvement (9) and extremely significant improvement (12). The degradation types can be divided into 4 categories: slight degradation (-3), relatively obvious degradation (-6), obvious degradation (-9) and extremely obvious degradation (-12). This dataset covers all grassland areas on the QTP with a spatial resolution of 500m and a time of 2015. The projection coordinate system is D_Krasovsky_1940_Albers. The data are stored in TIFF format, named “grassdegrad”, and the data volume is 94.76 MB. The data were saved in compressed file format, named “500 m grid data of grassland degradation assessment in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015”. The file volume is 2.54 MB. The data can be opened by ArcGIS, QGIS, ENVI, and ERDAS software, which can provide reference for grassland ecosystem management and restoration on the QTP.
The forest hydrology experimental area of Heihe River integrated remote sensing experiment includes the dense observation area of Dayekou basin and the dense observation area of Pailugou basin. Due to the concentrated distribution of the fixed sample plots in the drainage ditch basin, these sample plots lack of representativeness to the forest of the whole dayokou basin, so in June 2008, 43 temporary forest sample plots were set up in the whole dayokou basin. The data set is the ground observation data of the 43 temporary plots. In addition to the measurement and recording of stand status and site factors, Lai was also observed. The instruments used to measure each wood in the sample plot are mainly tape, DBH, flower pole, tree measuring instrument and compass. The DBH, tree height, height under branch, crown width in cross slope direction, crown width along slope direction and single tree growth were measured for each tree. WGS84 latitude and longitude coordinates of the center point of the sample plot were measured with different hand-held GPS, and the positioning error was about 5-30m. Other observation factors include: Forest Farm, slope direction, slope position, slope, soil thickness, canopy density, etc. The implementation time of these temporary sample plots is from 2 to 30 June 2008. The data set can provide ground data for the development of remote sensing inversion algorithm of forest structure parameters.
The data set mainly includes observation data of each tree in the super site, and the observation time is from June 2, 2008 to June 10, 2008. The super site is set around the Dayekou Guantan Forest Station. Since the size of the super site is 100m×100m, in order to facilitate the forest structure parameter survey, the super site is divided into 16 sub-sample sites, and tally forest measurement is performed in units of sub-samples. The tally forest measurement factors include: diameter, tree height, height under branch, crown width in transversal slope direction, crown width in up and down slope direction, and tindividual tree growth status. The measuring instruments are mainly: tape, diameter scale, laser altimeter, ultrasonic altimeter, range pole and compass. The data set also records the center point latitude and longitude coordinates of 16 sub-samples (measured by Z-MAX DGPS). The data set can be used for verification of remote sensing forest structure parameter extraction algorithm. The data set, together with other observation data of the super site, can be used for reconstruction of forest 3D scenes, establishment of active and passive remote sensing mechanism models, and simulation of remote sensing images,etc.
一. Data overview This data interchange is the second data interchange of "genomics research on drought tolerance mechanism of typical desert plants in heihe basin", a key project of the major research program of "integrated research on eco-hydrological processes in heihe basin".The main research goal of this project is a typical desert sand Holly plants as materials, using the current international advanced a new generation of gene sequencing technology to the whole genome sequence and gene transcription of Holly group sequence decoding, so as to explore related to drought resistance gene and gene groups, and transgenic technology in model plants such as arabidopsis and rice) verify its drought resistance. 二, data content 1.Sequencing of the genome and transcriptome of lycophylla SPP. The genome size of Mongolian Holly was about 926 Mb, GC content 36.88%, repeat sequence proportion 66%, genome heterozygosity rate 0.56%, which indicated that the genome has many repeat sequences, high heterozygosity and belongs to a complex genome.Based on the predicted sequence results, we subsequently carried out in-depth sequencing of the genome of lysiopsis SPP. The obtained data were assembled to obtain a 937 Mb genome sequence (table 1), which was basically the same as the predicted genome size.Through to the sand Holly transcriptome sequencing and sequence assembly (table 2), received more than 77000 genes coding sequence (Unigene), these sequences are comments found that most of the gene sequence and legumes and soybean, garbanzo beans and bean has a higher similarity (figure 1), consistent with the fact of sand ilex leguminous plants. 一), and the sand Holly is a leguminous plants consistent with the fact. 2.Discovery of simple repeat sequence (SSR) molecular markers of sand Holly: There is a transcriptome data set of sand Holly in the network public database, and the sample collection site is zhongwei city, ningxia.But this is the location of the project team samples in minqin county, gansu province, in order to study whether this sand in different areas of the Holly sequence has sequence polymorphism, we first identify the minqin county plant samples in the genomes of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (table 3), and then, compares the transcriptome sequences of plant sample, found in part of SSR molecular marker polymorphism (table 4), these molecular markers could be used for the species of plant genetic map construction, QTL mapping and genetic diversity analysis in the study. 三, data processing instructions Sample collection place: minqin county, gansu province, latitude and longitude: N38 ° 34 '25.93 "E103 ° 08' 36.77".Genome sequencing: a total of 8 genomic DNA libraries of different sizes were constructed and determined by Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument.Transcriptome sequencing: a library of 24 transcriptome mrnas was constructed and determined by Illumina HiSeq 4000. 四, the use of data and meaning We selected a typical desert plant as the research object, from the Angle of genomics, parse the desert plant genome and transcriptome sequences, excavated its precious drought-resistant gene resources, and to study their drought resistance mechanism of favorable sand Holly this ancient and important to the utilization of plant resources, as well as the heihe river basin of drought-resistant plant genetic breeding, ecological restoration and sustainable development.