To further investigate the transport process and temporal-spatial evolution of solid material in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, the Sitting Bottom Bionic Water and sediment Observation System, which is the first set of good at the strong hydrodynamic condition and can continuously measure flow-sediment processes in real-time, was installed at Yangcun hydrology station by the sedimentary Dynamics observation team of Sichuan University on May 15, 2021. The bionic system was equipped with different types of observation equipment for water and sediment characteristics, which can measure the critical characteristics of water and sediment motion with high time resolution for a long time, continuously and synchronously. This data set contains the continuous data of 1) vertical velocity distribution (ADCP20210515.xlsx), 2) instantaneous velocity and turbulence of a single point near-bed, 3) Suspended sediment concentration measured by super turbidimeter (AOBS20210515.xlsx), 4) water depth, suspended sediment concentration and size distribution measured by Laser granulometer (Lisst20210515.xlsx). The data set with nearly a month recorded synchronous and continuous observation data of water and sediment characters with high temporal resolution per 10 minutes, which successfully observed the coupling change process of water and sediment under the increasing discharge of Yarlung Zangbo River. The simultaneous and continuous observation technology of water and sediment based on the bionic observation system provides technical support and scientific basis for revealing the source to sink process and evolution of Yarlung Zangbo River, bedload transport, flood numerical simulation, flash flood disaster warning and prevention, and major infrastructure construction.
The riverbed surface of the main channel in Nyangqu river is composed of gravel particles with wide grain size distribution. there are abundant gravel particles on the beach and riverbed. In this investigation, the bed surface grain size distribution of the main channel and tributaries of the Nyangqu river was measured. This data set contains the information of the five sampling locations in five main channels and two locations in tributaries of the Nyangqu River Basin (Table 1) and the bed surface grain size distribution (Table 2). The sampling locations were generally selected near the cross-section with obvious riverbed. It was considered that water flow through these sections in the straight channel for a long. At the same time, because it was a dry season, the bed grain size distribution on the river beach could be considered as the movement of gravel bedload carried by the last flood season. Therefore, it was considered that the bed grain size distribution in the sampling area on the river beach in the dry season was the bedload size distribution in the flood season. The grain size distributions were measured by the automatic identification method of full particle size based on image processing (e.g., Baserain software), with high identification accuracy of sediment particles is high. It is of great value to the scientific research on the evolution of source to sink process，bedlaod transport, and flood numerical simualtion， as well as the basic research on the flash flood prevention and control.
This dataset contains the ground surface water (including liquid water, glacier and perennial snow) distribution in Qilian Mountain Area in 2021. The dataset was produced based on classical Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) extraction criterion and manual editing. Landsat images collected in 2021 were used as basic data for water index extraction. Sentinel-2 images and Google images were employed as reference data for adjusting the extraction threshold. The dataset was stored in SHP format and attached with the attributions of coordinates and water area. Consisting of 1 season, the dataset has a temporal resolution of 1 year and a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The accuracy is about 1 pixel (±30 meter). The dataset directly reflects the distribution of water bodies within the Qilian Mountain in 2021, and can be used for quantitative estimation of water resource.
From September 3 to September 9, 2020, groundwater and surface water were collected in the upper reaches of Nujiang River Basin (i.e. Naqu basin in Nujiang River source area), and the samples were immediately put into 100 ml high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles. 18O and D are analyzed and tested by liquid water isotope analyzer (picarro l2140-i, USA), and the stable isotope ratio is expressed by the thousand difference relative to Vienna "standard average seawater" (VSMOW). δ 18O and δ The analysis error of D is ± 0.1 ‰ and ± 1 ‰ respectively. It provides basic data support for subsequent analysis of groundwater source analysis in Naqu basin.
This data is the runoff and evapotranspiration generated by the precipitation in the growing season of the upper reaches of Heihe River from 1992 to 2015. Temporal resolution: year (growingseason), spatial resolution: 0.00833°. The data include precipitation (mm), evapotranspiration (mm), runoff (mm) and soil water content (m3 / m3). The data are obtained by using meteorological, soil and vegetation parameters based on Eagleson eco hydrological model. The simulated rainfall runoff is verified by using the observed runoff data in the growing season of 6 sub basins in the upper reaches of Heihe River (Heihe main stream, Babao River, yeniugou, Liyuan River, Wafangcheng and Hongshui River). The variation range of correlation coefficient (R) is 0.53-0.74, RMSE is 32.46-233.18 mm, and the relative error range is -0.66-0.0005; The difference between simulated evapotranspiration and gleam et is − 115.36 mm to 44.1 mm. The simulation results can provide some reference for hydrological simulation in the upper reaches of Heihe River.
The near surface atmospheric forcing and surface state dataset of the Tibetan Plateau was yielded by WRF model, time range: 2000-2010, space range: 25-40 °N, 75-105 °E, time resolution: hourly, space resolution: 10 km, grid number: 150 * 300. There are 33 variables in total, including 11 near surface atmospheric variables: temperature at 2m height on the ground, specific humidity at 2m height on the ground, surface pressure, latitudinal component of 10m wind field on the ground, longitudinal component of 10m wind field on the ground, proportion of solid precipitation, cumulative cumulus convective precipitation, cumulative grid precipitation, downward shortwave radiation flux at the surface, downward length at the surface Wave radiation flux, cumulative potential evaporation. There are 19 surface state variables: soil temperature in each layer, soil moisture in each layer, liquid water content in each layer, heat flux of snow phase change, soil bottom temperature, surface runoff, underground runoff, vegetation proportion, surface heat flux, snow water equivalent, actual snow thickness, snow density, water in the canopy, surface temperature, albedo, background albedo, lower boundary Soil temperature, upward heat flux (sensible heat flux) at the surface and upward water flux (sensible heat flux) at the surface. There are three other variables: longitude, latitude and planetary boundary layer height.
Water conservation service is an important ecosystem service, which directly affects the overall level of regional water resources and has an important impact on regional ecosystem, agriculture, industry, human consumption, hydropower, fishery and recreational activities. It is of great significance to maintain ecosystem stability and improve human well-being. Aiming at the production of water conservation products, based on the principle of water balance, coupled with the data of rainfall, evapotranspiration, solar radiation, temperature and vegetation type, the modeling of water conservation of ecosystem in national barrier area is studied. The water conservation service is calculated by the invest model based on the principle of water balance. The invest model has the advantages of less input data, large amount of export data and quantitative analysis of abstract ecosystem service functions. It is an important means of water conservation service evaluation at present. This method considers that the water conservation service is precipitation minus evapotranspiration, and the calculated indexes include annual precipitation and annual evapotranspiration. The precipitation data is based on the meteorological station data, the daily meteorological data is accumulated to the annual scale, and then interpolated to the space by ArcGIS spatial interpolation method; The calculation of evapotranspiration is realized by Zhang model. Taking multi-source data as the input variable of the invest model, the estimation of water conservation services in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau with a resolution of 1km from 2000 to 2020 is realized based on the parametric model.
This data provides the annual lake area of 582 lakes with an area greater than 1 km2 in the enorheic basin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1986 to 2019. First, based on JRC and SRTM DEM data, 582 lakes are identified in the area that are larger than 1 km2. All Landsat 5/7/8 remote sensing images covering a lake are used to make annual composite images. NDWI index and Ostu algorithm were used to dynamically segment lakes, and the size of each lake from 1986 to 2019 is then calculated. This study is based on the Landsat satellite remote sensing images, and using Google Earth Engine allowed us to process all Landsat images available to create the most complete annual lake area data set of more than 1 km2 in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area; A set of lake area automatic extraction algorithms were developed to calculate of the area of a lake for many years; This data is of great significance for the analysis of lake area dynamics and water balance in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region, as well as the study of the climate change of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lake.
Glacier is the supply water source of rivers in the western mountainous area, and it is one of the most basic elements for people to survive and develop industry, agriculture and animal husbandry in the western region. Glaciers are not only valuable fresh water resources, but also the source of serious natural disasters in mountainous areas, such as sudden ice lake outburst flood, glacier debris flow and ice avalanche. Glacier hydrological monitoring is the basis for studying the characteristics of glacier melt water, the replenishment of glacier melt water to rivers, the relationship between glacier surface ablation and runoff, the process of ice runoff and confluence, and the calculation and prediction of floods and debris flows induced by glacier and seasonal snow melt water. Glacial hydrology refers to the water and heat conditions of glacial covered basins (i.e. glacial action areas), that is, the water and heat exchange between glaciers and their surrounding environment, the physical process of water accumulation and flow on the surface, inside and bottom of glaciers, the water balance of glaciers, the replenishment of glacial melt water to rivers, and the impact of water bodies in cold regions on climate change. At present, hydrological monitoring stations are mainly established at the outlet of the river basin to carry out field monitoring《 Glacial water resources of China (1991), hydrology of cold regions of China (2000) and glacial Hydrology (2001) summarize the early studies on glacial hydrology. China has carried out glacier hydrological monitoring on more than 20 glaciers in Tianshan, Karakorum, West Kunlun, Qilian, Tanggula, Nianqing Tanggula, gangrigab, Hengduan and Himalayas. This data set is the monthly runoff data of representative glaciers.
The data consists of three fields: longitude, latitude and lake depth. Using sonar equipment to measure the depth of water on the lake, GPS synchronous measurement of longitude and latitude. The salinity and temperature data of lake water are used to correct the depth data measured by sonar, and the outliers are eliminated. The underwater topographic map of lake can be formed by interpolation of water depth data. Using the underwater topographic map, the water storage of lakes can be calculated and the total water quantity of lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau can be evaluated. The underwater topographic map combined with remote sensing data can also be used to study the characteristics and influencing factors of lake water quantity variation in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which is an important part of the study of water quantity variation in the Asian water tower.