The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded near-surface meteorological dataset that was developed specifically for studies of land surface processes in China. The dataset was made through fusion of remote sensing products, reanalysis dataset and in-situ observation data at weather stations. Its record starts from January 1979 and keeps extending (currently up to December 2018) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Seven near-surface meteorological elements are provided in CMFD, including 2-meter air temperature, surface pressure, specific humidity, 10-meter wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation and precipitation rate.
This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.
This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Daman Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (AV-14TH;3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2.5 m, 8 m in west of tower), four-component radiometer (PIR&PSP; 12 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 12 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI190SB; 12 m, towards south, vertically upward; another four photosynthetically active radiation, PQS-1; two above the plants (12 m) and two below the plants (0.3 m), towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the vegetation; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30m, and WD_40 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2, and Gs_3, between plants) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), above the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day.The meterological data during September 17 and November 7 and TCAV data after November 7 were wrong because the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.
The dataset of sun photometer observations was obtained in Linze grassland station, the reed plot A, the saline plot B, the barley plot E, the observation stationof the Linze grassland foci experimental areaand Jingdu hotel of Zhangye city. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318 from May 30 to Jun. 11, 2008. And from Jun. 15 to Jul.11, the data of 1640nm, 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm, 550nm, 440nm, 380nm and 340nm were acquired. Both measurements were carried out at intervals of 1 minute. Optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, air temperature and pressure near land surface, the solar azimuth and zenith could all be further retrieved. Readme file was attached for detail.
The dataset of meteorological station observations (2008-2009) was obtained at the Yeniugou cold region hydrological station (E99°33'/N38°28', 3320m), Qilian county, Qinghai province. Observation items were multilayer (2m and 10m) of the air temperature and air humidity, the wind speed and direction, the air pressure, precipitation, the global radiation, the net radiation, the multilayer soil temperature (20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), soil moisture (20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), and soil heat flux. For more details, please refer to the attached Data Directions.
This data set contains the temperature anomaly series for each quarter and month of the years from January, 1951 to December, 2006 on the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the “China Homogenized Historical Temperature Data Set (1951–2004) Version 1.0” and the daily average temperature data from 2005 to 2006, the monthly average temperature of 123 sites on the Tibetan Plateau and its neighboring areas were gridded using the Climate Anomaly Method (CAM). Further, the average monthly temperature anomaly sequences from 1951 to 2006 were established using the area weighting factor method. To maximize the use of the observation data, the method using the data at a nearby reference station to correct the short series of the climatic standard values of the air temperature data is emphatically discussed. Reference: Yu Ren, Xueqin Zhang, Lili Peng. Construction and Analysis of Mean Air Temperature Anomaly Series for the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau during 1951-2006. Plateau Meteorology, 2010. The “China Homogenized Historical Temperature Data Set (1951–2004) Version 1.0” and the daily average temperature data from 2005 to 2006 meet the relevant national standards. There are five fields in the monthly temperature anomaly data table. Field 1: Year Field 2: Month Field 3: Number of grids Number of grids included in the calculation Field 4: Number of sites Number of sites included in the calculation Field 5: Monthly Temperature Anomaly Unit °C There are five fields in the year and quarter temperature anomaly data table. Field 1: Year Field 2: Quarter Field 3: Number of grids Number of grids included in the calculation Field 4: Number of sites Explanation: Number of sites included in the calculation Field 5: Temperature anomaly °C In the quarter field: 1. If it is null, it is the annual temperature anomaly 2. DJF: Winter (Last December to this February) temperature anomaly °C 3. MAM: Spring (March-May) temperature anomaly °C 4. JJA: Summer (June-August) temperature anomaly °C 5. SON: Fall (September-November) temperature anomaly °C Data accuracy: the monthly average temperature anomaly to the third decimal places, the annual and quarterly average temperature anomaly to the second decimal places.
The data set contains the meteorological element observation data of ebao station in the upper reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network on January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016.The station is located in ebao town, qilian county, qinghai province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 100.9151E, 37.9492N, and the altitude is 3294m.The air temperature and relative humidity sensor is set up at 5m, facing due north.The barometer is installed in the anti-skid box on the ground;The tipping bucket rain gauge is installed at 10m;The wind speed and direction sensor is mounted at 10m, facing due north;The four-component radiometer is installed at 6m, facing due south;Two infrared thermometers are installed at 6m, facing south, with the probe facing vertically downward;The soil temperature probe is buried at the surface of 0cm and underground of 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm, 2m south of the meteorological tower.The soil moisture probe is buried underground at 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm, 2m south of the meteorological tower.The soil heat flow plates (3 pieces) are successively buried 6cm underground, 2m south of the meteorological tower. Observation projects are: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m, RH_5m) (unit: c, percentage), pressure (Press) (unit: hundred mpa), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_10m) (unit: m/s), wind (WD_10m) (unit: degrees), the radiation of four component (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watts per square meter), the surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit:C), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: wattage/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (unit: water content by volume, percentage). Processing and quality control of observation data :(1) 144 data per day (every 10min) should be ensured.The four-component radiation and infrared temperature were between October 11, 2015 and November 5, 2015.The instrument of the observation tower was re-adjusted between 11.1 and 11.5, and the data was missing;(2) eliminate the moments with duplicate records;(3) data that obviously exceeds the physical significance or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the part marked with red letters in the data is questionable data;(5) the format of date and time is uniform, and the date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: 2015-9-10 10:30;(6) naming rules: AWS+ site name. For information of hydrometeorological network or site, please refer to Li et al. (2013), and for data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).
The dataset of mobile meteorological station observations was obtained in the foci experiment area from March to April, 2008. To synergize the very high resolution airborne remote sensing and ground-based measurements, 11 mobile observations, including meteorological stations (for meteorological data) and GPS (for observation sites), were carried out in Binggou, A'rou and Biandukou. The items included the wind speed and direction at 3.03m (the truck height 1.84m plus the vane height 1.19m), the air temperature and humidity at 3.04m (the truck height 1.84m plus the vane height 1.2m), the surface temperature (the truck height 1.84m plus 1.06m) and the total radiation (the truck height 1.84m plus 1.39m). The observation sites and time were as follows: Dadongshu mountain pass-A'rou 15-3-2008 Biandukou-Qilian 18-3-2008 A'rou-Biandukou 19-3-2008 Qilian-Minle 20-3-2008 Mingle-Zhangye 21-3-2008 Binggou-Dadongshu mountain pass 22-3-2008 Binggou-Dadongshu mountain pass 24-3-2008 Binggou-Dadongshu mountain pass 29-3-2008 Binggou-Dadongshu mountain pass 30-3-2008 Qilian-A'rou 31-3-2008 A'rou 01-4-2008 The data were named after WATER_Mobile_ AWS_yyyymmdd (yyyymmdd for observation time).
The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with PROBA CHRIS was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jul. 1, 2008. Observation items included: (1) FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation) of maize and wheat by SUNSACN and the digital camera in Yingke oasis maize field. FPAR= (canopyPAR－surface transmissionPAR－canopy reflection PAR+surface reflectionPAR) /canopy PAR; APAR=FPAR* canopy PAR. Data were archived in the table format of Word. (2) BRDF of maize by ASD (350～2 500 nm) from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS) and the self-made multi-angluar observation platform of BNU make in Yingke oasis maize field. The maximum height of the platform was 5m above the ground with the azimuth 0~360° and the zenith angle -60°~60°. An automatic thermometer was attached to the platform for the multiangle radiative temperature. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel. (3) The radiative temperature of the maize canopy by the automatic thermometer (emissivity: 0.95),at a hight of 50cm from the crown in Yingke oasis maize field. Raw data, blackbody calibrated data and processed data were all archived in Excel format. (4) Atmospheric parameters at the resort by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for details. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number. (5) The multiangle radiative temperature by the automatic thermometer (emissivity: 1.0) attached on the observation platform, at an interval of 0.05s. The data were archived in .txt files (.dat format). The first seven lines were the header file, including acquisition date, time, and intervals; besides, Time (starting time), TObj (target temperature), Tint (the interior temperature of the probe), TBox (the temperature of the box) and Tact (the actual temperature calculated from the given emissivity) were also listed.