Dataset of high-resolution surface air exchange and low-level atmospheric structure of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (August 2014)

Based on the WRF model, using ERA5 reanalysis data as the initial and boundary fields, the high-resolution low-level atmospheric structure and the earth atmosphere exchange data set of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau are preliminarily obtained by the method of dynamic downscaling. The time range of this data set is from August 1 to August 31, 2014, with a time resolution of 1 hour, a horizontal range of 25 °N-40 °N, 70oE-105oE, and a horizontal resolution of 0.05 °. The data format is NetCDF, and one file is output every hour. The file is named after the date. The lower atmospheric structure data includes temperature, relative humidity, water vapor mixing ratio, potential height, meridional wind and latitudinal wind meteorological elements, with 34 isobaric surfaces in the vertical direction; the surface air exchange data set includes the upward / downward short wave radiation, upward / downward long wave radiation, surface sensible heat and flux, 2m air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, 10m wind, etc. The data set can provide data support for the study of weather process and climate environment in the Tibetan Plateau.

0 2020-07-07

Airborne pollen data at the Qomolangma Station (2011-2013)

Airborne pollen is mainly produced and disseminated during the process of plant flowering, controlled by plant phenology and climatic conditions. As an important bioindicator of plant behavior, airborne pollen can supply information about reproductive phenology, climate and atmospheric circulations. From 2011 to 2013, airborne pollen samples were collected using a volumetric Burkard pollen trap at the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS, 28.21°N, 86.56°E; 4276 m a.s.l.), on the northern slope of the Himalayas. The sampler is a volumetric air-suction device capable of continuously gathering pollen and spore particles. Air is drawn in at a speed of 10 l/min, and airborne particles are deposited on a sticky tape mounted on a drum that makes one complete rotation per week. The tape is changed weekly after a complete rotation. Then, the tape is removed and cut into seven pieces, with each piece representing one day of sampling. The pieces are mounted on slides using glycerin and safranin. Identification and counting of pollen grains were performed under an Olympus BX41 microscope at 400× magnification; all pollen grains on each slide were counted . Pollen concentration was expressed as the daily pollen grains per cubic meter of air using a constant air intake speed of 10 l/min. The pollen concentration and percentage of each pollen taxon in each year were calculated. The pollen sampling and lab process were followed the standard methods to ensure the authenticity and reliability of the data. The pollen data can provides insights into vegetation response to climate change and has significance for interpreting fossil pollen records.

0 2020-06-28

Meteorological observation data of Kunsha Glacier (2015-2017)

This data set includes the temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and other daily values in the observation point of Kunsha Glacier. The data is observed from October 3, 2015 to September 19, 2017. It is measured by automatic meteorological station (Onset Company) and a piece of data is recorded every 2 hours. The original data forms a continuous time series after quality control, and the daily mean index data is obtained through calculation. The original data meets the accuracy requirements of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation. Quality control includes eliminating the systematic error caused by the missing point data and sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.

0 2020-06-24

Meteorological data of the integrated observation and research station of Ngari for desert environment (2009-2017)

The data set includes meteorological data from the Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station from 2009 to 2017. It includes the following basic meteorological parameters: temperature (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: Celsius), relative humidity (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: %), wind speed (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: m/s), wind direction (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: degrees), atmospheric pressure (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: hPa), precipitation (once every 24 hours, unit: mm), water vapour pressure (unit: kPa), evaporation (unit: mm), downward shortwave radiation (unit: W/m2), upward shortwave radiation (unit: W/m2), downward longwave radiation (unit: W/m2), upward longwave radiation (unit: W/m2), net radiation (unit: W/m2), surface albedo (unit: %). The temporal resolution of the data is one day. The data were directly downloaded from the Ngari automatic weather station. The precipitation data represent daily precipitation measured by the automatic rain and snow gauge and corrected based on manual observations. The other observation data are the daily mean value of the measurements taken every half hour. Instrument models of different observations: temperature and humidity: HMP45C air temperature and humidity probe; precipitation: T200-B rain and snow gauge sensor; wind speed and direction: Vaisala 05013 wind speed and direction sensor; net radiation: Kipp Zonen NR01 net radiation sensor; atmospheric pressure: Vaisala PTB210 atmospheric pressure sensor; collector model: CR 1000; acquisition interval: 30 minutes. The data table is processed and quality controlled by a particular person based on observation records. Observations and data acquisition are carried out in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications, and some data with obvious errors are removed when processing the data table.

0 2020-06-24

Monthly standard weather station dataset in Sanjiangyuan (1957-2015)

Monthly meteorological data of Sanjiangyuan includes 32 national standard meteorological stations. There are 26 variables: average local pressure, extreme maximum local pressure, date of extreme maximum local pressure, extreme minimum local pressure, date of extreme minimum local pressure, average temperature, extreme maximum temperature, date of extreme maximum temperature, extreme minimum temperature and date of extreme minimum temperature, average temperature anomaly, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, sunshine hours, percentage of sunshine, average relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, date of occurrence of minimum relative humidity, precipitation, days of daily precipitation >=0.1mm, maximum daily precipitation, date of maximum daily precipitation, percentage of precipitation anomaly, average wind speed, maximum wind speed, date of maximum wind speed, maximum wind speed, wind direction of maximum wind speed, wind direction of maximum wind speed and occurrence date of maximum wind speed. The data format is txt, named by the site ID, and each file has 26 columns. The names and units of each column are explained in the SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MON_readme.txt file. site_id lat lon elv name_cn 52754 37.33 100.13 8301.50 Gangcha 52833 36.92 98.48 7950.00 Wulan 52836 36.30 98.10 3191.10 Dulan 52856 36.27 100.62 2835.00 Qiapuqia 52866 36.72 101.75 2295.20 Xining 52868 36.03 101.43 2237.10 Guizhou 52908 35.22 93.08 4612.20 Wudaoliang 52943 35.58 99.98 3323.20 Xinghai 52955 35.58 100.75 8120.00 Guinan 52974 35.52 102.02 2491.40 Tongren 56004 34.22 92.43 4533.10 Togton He 56018 32.90 95.30 4066.40 Zaduo 56021 34.13 95.78 4175.00 Qumalai 56029 33.02 97.02 3681.20 Yushu 56033 34.92 98.22 4272.30 Maduo 56034 33.80 97.13 4415.40 Qingshui River 56038 32.98 98.10 9200.00 Shiqu 56043 34.47 100.25 3719.00 Guoluo 56046 33.75 99.65 3967.50 Dari 56065 34.73 101.60 8500.00 Henan 56067 33.43 101.48 3628.50 Jiuzhi 56074 34.00 102.08 3471.40 Maqu 56080 35.00 102.90 2910.00 Hezuo 56106 31.88 93.78 4022.80 Suo County 56116 31.42 95.60 3873.10 Dingqing 56125 32.20 96.48 3643.70 Nangqian 56128 31.22 96.60 3810.00 Leiwuqi 56137 31.15 97.17 3306.00 Changdu 56151 32.93 100.75 8530.00 Banma 56152 32.28 100.33 8893.90 Seda

0 2020-06-24

Daily standard weather station dataset in Sanjiangyuan region (1981-2015)

The files in this data set are named as: 1. Pressure of the station: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-PRS-10004-SITEID.TXT 2. Temperature: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-TEM-12001-SITEID.TXT 3. Relative humidity: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-RHU-13003-SITEID.TXT 4. Precipitation: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-PRE-13011-SITEID.TXT 5. Evaporation: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-EVP-13240-SITEID.TXT 6. Wind direction and wind speed: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-WIN-11002-SITEID.TXT 7. Sunshine: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-SSD-14032-SITEID.TXT 8.0cm Ground Temperature: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-GST-12030-0cm-SITEID.TXT Detailed format descriptions for each data file are given in the SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY_FORMAT.doc file. The meteorological site information contained in this data set is as follows: Site_id lat lon ELV name_En 52754 37.33 100.13 8301.50 Gangcha 52833 36.92 98.48 7950.00 Uran 52836 36.30 98.10 3191.10 Dulan 52856 36.27 100.62 2835.00 Chabcha 52866 36.72 101.75 2295.20 Xining 52868 36.03 101.43 2237.10 Guizhou 52908 35.22 93.08 4612.20 Wu Daoliang 52943 35.58 99.98 3323.20 Xinghai 52955 35.58 100.75 8120.00 Guinan 52974 35.52 102.02 2491.40 Tongren 56004 34.22 92.43 4533.10 Toto River 56018 32.90 95.30 4066.40 Zaduo 56021 34.13 95.78 4175.00 Qumalai 56029 33.02 97.02 3681.20 Yushu 56033 34.92 98.22 4272.30 Maddo 56034 33.80 97.13 4415.40 Qingshui River 56038 32.98 98 98.10 9200.00 Shiqu 56 043 34.47 100.25 3719.00 Golo 56 046 33.75 99.65 3967.50 Dari 56065 34.73 101.60 8500.00 Henan 56 067 33.43 101.48 3628.50 Jiuzhi 56074 34.00 102.08 3471.40 Marqu 56080 35.00 102.90 2910.00 Hezuo 56106 31.88 93.78 4022.80 Suoxian 56116 31.42 95.60 3873.10 Ding Qing 56125 32.20 96.48 3643.70 Xiangqian 56128. 31.22. 96.60. 3810.00 Leiwuqi 56 137 31.15 97.17 3306.00 Changdu 56151 32.93 100.75 8530.00 Banma 56152 32.28 100.33 8893.90 Saida

0 2020-06-23

Dataset of meteorological elements of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (2014-2017)

This dataset is derived from the Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment (31.37N, 91.90E, 4509 a.s.l), Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The ground is flat, with open surrounding terrain. An uneven growth of alpine steppe, with a height of 3–20 cm. The observation time of this dataset is from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. The observation elements primarily included the wind speed, air temperature, air relative humidity, air pressure, downward shortwave radiation, precipitation, evaporation, latent heat flux and CO2 flux. The precipitation , evaporation and CO2 flux data are daily cumulative values, and the other variables are daily average values. The observed data are generally continuous, but some data are missing due to power supply failure, and the missing data in this dataset are marked as NAN.

0 2020-06-23

China meteorological assimilation driving datasets for the SWAT model Version 1.1 (2008-2016)

CMADS V1.1(The China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model Version 1.1) Version of the data set introduced the STMAS assimilation algorithm. It was constructed using multiple technologies and scientific methods, including loop nesting of data, projection of resampling models, and bilinear interpolation. The CMADS series of datasets can be used to drive various hydrological models, such as SWAT, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and the Storm Water Management model (SWMM). It also allows users to conveniently extract a wide range of meteorological elements for detailed climatic analyses. Data sources for the CMADS series include nearly 40,000 regional automatic stations under China’s 2,421 national automatic and business assessment centres. This ensures that the CMADS datasets have wide applicability within the country, and that data accuracy was vastly improved. The CMADS series of datasets has undergone finishing and correction to match the specific format of input and driving data of SWAT models. This reduces the volume of complex work that model builders have to deal with. An index table of the various elements encompassing all of East Asia was also established for SWAT models. This allows the models to utilize the datasets directly, thus eliminating the need for any format conversion or calculations using weather generators. Consequently, significant improvements to the modelling speed and output accuracy of SWAT models were achieved. Most of the source data in the CMADS datasets are derived from CLDAS in China and other reanalysis data in the world. The integration of air temperature (2m), air pressure, humidity, and wind speed data (10m) was mainly achieved through the LAPS/STMAS system. Precipitation data were stitched using CMORPH’s global precipitation products and the National Meteorological Information Center’s data of China (which is based on CMORPH’s integrated precipitation products). The latter contains daily precipitation records observed at 2,400 national meteorological stations and the CMORPH satellite’s inversion precipitation products.The inversion algorithm for incoming solar radiation at the ground surface makes use of the discrete longitudinal method by Stamnes et al.(1988)to calculate radiation transmission. The resolutions for CMADS V1.0, V1.1, V1.2, and V1.3 were 1/3°, 1/4°, 1/8°, and 1/16°, respectively. In CMADS V1.0 (at a spatial resolution of 1/3°), East Asia was spatially divided into 195 × 300 grid points containing 58,500 stations. Despite being at the same spatial resolution as CMADS V1.0, CMADS V1.1 contains more data, with 260 × 400 grid points containing 104,000 stations. For both versions, the stations’ daily data include average solar radiation, average temperature (2m), average pressure, maximum and minimum temperature (2m), specific humidity, cumulative precipitation, and average wind speed (10m). The CMADS comprises other variables for any hydrological model(under 'For-other-model' folder): Daily Average Temperature (2m), Daily Maximum Temperature (2m), Daily Minimum Temperature (2m), Daily cumulative precipitation (20-20h), Daily average Relative Humidity, Daily average Specific Humidity, Daily average Solar Radiation, Daily average Wind (10m), and Daily average Atmospheric Pressure. Introduction to metadata of CMADS CMADS storage path description:(CMADS was divided into two datesets) 1.CMADS-V1.0\For-swat\ --specifically driving the SWAT model 2.CMADS-V1.0\For-other-model\ --specifically driving the other hydrological model(VIC,SWMM,etc.) CMADS--\For-swat-2009\ folder contain:(Station\ and Fork\) 1).Station\ Relative-Humidity-58500\ Daily average relative humidity(fraction) Precipitation-58500\ Daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation(mm) Solar radiation-58500\ Daily average solar radiation(MJ/m2) Tmperature-58500\ Daily maximum and minimum 2m temperature(℃) Wind-58500\ Daily average 10m wind speed(m/s) Where R, P, S, T, W+ dimensional grid number - the number of longitude grid is the station in the above five folders respectively.(Where R,P,S,T,W respective Daily average relative humidity,Daily cumulative precipitation(24h),Daily mean solar radiation(MJ/m2),Daily maximum and minimum temperature(℃) and Daily mean wind speed (m/s)) respectively.Data format is (.dbf) 2).Fork\ (Station index table over East Asia) PCPFORK.txt (Precipitation index table) RHFORK.txt (Relative humidity index table) SORFORK.txt (Solar radiation index table) TMPFORK.txt (Temperature index table) WINDFORK.txt (Wind speed index) CMADS--\For-swat-2012\ folder contain:(Station\ and Fork\) Storage structure is consistency with \For-swat- 2009\.However, all the data in this directory are only available in TXT format and can be readed by SWAT2012. 3)\For-other-model\ (Includes all weather input data required by the any hydrologic model (daily).) Atmospheric-Pressure-txt\ Daily average atmospheric pressure(hPa) Average-Temperature-txt\ Daily average 2m temperature(℃) Maximum-Temperature-txt\ Daily maximum 2m temperature(℃) Minimum-Temperature-txt\ Daily minimum 2m temperature(℃) Precipitation-txt\ Daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation (mm) Relative-Humidity-txt\ Daily average relative humidity(fraction) Solar-Radiation-txt\ Daily average solar radiation(MJ/m2) Specific-Humidity-txt\ Daily average Specific Humidity(g/kg) Wind-txt\ Daily average 10m wind speed(m/s) Data storage information: data set storage format is .dbf and .txt Other data information: Total data:45GB Occupied space: 50GB Time: From year 2008 to year 2014 Time resolution: Daily Geographical scope description: East Asia Longitude: 60° E The most east longitude: 160°E North latitude: 65°N Most southern latitude: 0°N Number of stations: 58500 stations Spatial resolution: 1/3 * 1/3 * grid points Vertical range: None

0 2020-06-23

China meteorological assimilation driving datasets for the SWAT model Version 1.0 (2008-2016)

CMADS V1.0(The China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model Version 1.0)Version of the data set introduces the technology of STMAS assimilation algorithm . It was constructed using multiple technologies and scientific methods, including loop nesting of data, projection of resampling models, and bilinear interpolation. The CMADS series of datasets can be used to drive various hydrological models, such as SWAT, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and the Storm Water Management model (SWMM). It also allows users to conveniently extract a wide range of meteorological elements for detailed climatic analyses. Data sources for the CMADS series include nearly 40,000 regional automatic stations under China’s 2,421 national automatic and business assessment centres. This ensures that the CMADS datasets have wide applicability within the country, and that data accuracy was vastly improved. The CMADS series of datasets has undergone finishing and correction to match the specific format of input and driving data of SWAT models. This reduces the volume of complex work that model builders have to deal with. An index table of the various elements encompassing all of East Asia was also established for SWAT models. This allows the models to utilize the datasets directly, thus eliminating the need for any format conversion or calculations using weather generators. Consequently, significant improvements to the modelling speed and output accuracy of SWAT models were achieved. Most of the source data in the CMADS datasets are derived from CLDAS in China and other reanalysis data in the world. The integration of air temperature, air pressure, humidity, and wind velocity data was mainly achieved through the LAPS/STMAS system. Precipitation data were stitched using CMORPH’s global precipitation products and the National Meteorological Information Center’s data of China (which is based on CMORPH’s integrated precipitation products). The latter contains daily precipitation records observed at 2,400 national meteorological stations and the CMORPH satellite’s inversion precipitation products.The inversion algorithm for incoming solar radiation at the ground surface makes use of the discrete longitudinal method by Stamnes et al.(1988)to calculate radiation transmission. The resolutions for CMADS V1.0, V1.1, V1.2, and V1.3 were 1/3°, 1/4°, 1/8°, and 1/16°, respectively. In CMADS V1.0 (at a spatial resolution of 1/3°), East Asia was spatially divided into 195 × 300 grid points containing 58,500 stations. Despite being at the same spatial resolution as CMADS V1.0, CMADS V1.1 contains more data, with 260 × 400 grid points containing 104,000 stations. For both versions, the stations’ daily data include average solar radiation, average temperature, average pressure, maximum and minimum temperature, specific humidity, cumulative precipitation, and average wind velocity. The CMADS comprises other variables for any hydrological model(under 'For-other-model' folder ): Daily Average Temperature, Daily Maximum Temperature, Daily Minimum Temperature, Daily cumulative precipitation (20-20h), Daily average Relative Humidity, Daily average Specific Humidity, Daily average Solar Radiation, Daily average Wind, and Daily average Atmospheric Pressure. Introduction to metadata of CMADS CMADS storage path description:(CMADS was divided into two datesets) 1.CMADS-V1.0\For-swat\ --specifically driving the SWAT model 2.CMADS-V1.0\For-other-model\ --specifically driving the other hydrological model(VIC,SWMM,etc.) CMADS--\For-swat-2009\ folder contain:(Station\ and Fork\) 1).Station\ Relative-Humidity-58500\ Daily average relative humidity(fraction) Precipitation-58500\ Daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation(mm) Solar radiation-58500\ Daily average solar radiation(MJ/m2) Tmperature-58500\ Daily maximum and minimum temperature(℃) Wind-58500\ Daily average wind speed(m/s) Where R, P, S, T, W+ dimensional grid number - the number of longitude grid is the station in the above five folders respectively.(Where R,P,S,T,W respective Daily average relative humidity,Daily cumulative precipitation(24h),Daily mean solar radiation(MJ/m2),Daily maximum and minimum temperature(℃) and Daily mean wind speed (m/s)) respectively.Data format is (.dbf) 2).Fork\ (Station index table over East Asia) PCPFORK.txt (Precipitation index table) RHFORK.txt (Relative humidity index table) SORFORK.txt (Solar radiation index table) TMPFORK.txt (Temperature index table) WINDFORK.txt (Wind speed index) CMADS--\For-swat-2012\ folder contain:(Station\ and Fork\) Storage structure is consistency with \For-swat- 2009\.However, all the data in this directory are only available in TXT format and can be readed by SWAT2012. 3)\For-other-model\ (Includes all weather input data required by the any hydrologic model (daily).) Atmospheric-Pressure-txt\ Daily average atmospheric pressure(hPa) Average-Temperature-txt\ Daily average temperature(℃) Maximum-Temperature-txt\ Daily maximum temperature(℃) Minimum-Temperature-txt\ Daily minimum temperature(℃) Precipitation-txt\ Daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation (mm) Relative-Humidity-txt\ Daily average relative humidity(fraction) Solar-Radiation-txt\ Daily average solar radiation(MJ/m2) Specific-Humidity-txt\ Daily average Specific Humidity(g/kg) Wind-txt\ Daily average wind speed(m/s) Data storage information: data set storage format is .dbf and .txt Other data information: Total data: 33.6GB Occupied space: 35.2GB Time: From year 2008 to year 2016 Time resolution: Daily Geographical scope description: East Asia Longitude: 60°E The most east longitude: 160°E North latitude: 65°N Most southern latitude: 0°N Number of stations: 58500 stations Spatial resolution: 1/3 * 1/3 * grid points Vertical range: None

0 2020-06-23

A tree ring-based winter temperature reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (1340-2007)

This dataset is provided by the author of the paper: Huang, R., Zhu, H.F., Liang, E.Y., Liu, B., Shi, J.F., Zhang, R.B., Yuan, Y.J., & Grießinger, J. (2019). A tree ring-based winter temperature reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau since 1340 CE. Climate Dynamics, 53(5-6), 3221-3233. In this paper, in order to understand the past few hundred years of winter temperature change history and its driving factors, the researcher of Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences. Prof. Eryuan Liang and his research team, reconstructed the minimum winter (November – February) temperature since 1340 A.D. on southeastern Tibetan Plateau based on the tree-ring samples taken from 2007-2016. The dataset contains minimum winter temperature reconstruction data of Changdu on the southeastern TP during 1340-2007. The data contains fileds as follows: year Tmin.recon (℃) See attachments for data details: A tree ring-based winter temperature reconstruction for the southeasternTibetan Plateau since 1340 CE.pdf

0 2020-06-19