Airborne pollen data at the Qomolangma Station (2011-2013)

Airborne pollen is mainly produced and disseminated during the process of plant flowering, controlled by plant phenology and climatic conditions. As an important bioindicator of plant behavior, airborne pollen can supply information about reproductive phenology, climate and atmospheric circulations. From 2011 to 2013, airborne pollen samples were collected using a volumetric Burkard pollen trap at the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS, 28.21°N, 86.56°E; 4276 m a.s.l.), on the northern slope of the Himalayas. The sampler is a volumetric air-suction device capable of continuously gathering pollen and spore particles. Air is drawn in at a speed of 10 l/min, and airborne particles are deposited on a sticky tape mounted on a drum that makes one complete rotation per week. The tape is changed weekly after a complete rotation. Then, the tape is removed and cut into seven pieces, with each piece representing one day of sampling. The pieces are mounted on slides using glycerin and safranin. Identification and counting of pollen grains were performed under an Olympus BX41 microscope at 400× magnification; all pollen grains on each slide were counted . Pollen concentration was expressed as the daily pollen grains per cubic meter of air using a constant air intake speed of 10 l/min. The pollen concentration and percentage of each pollen taxon in each year were calculated. The pollen sampling and lab process were followed the standard methods to ensure the authenticity and reliability of the data. The pollen data can provides insights into vegetation response to climate change and has significance for interpreting fossil pollen records.

0 2020-06-28

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Liancheng Station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Liancheng Station from January 1 to November 2, 2019. The site (102.737E, 36.692N) was located on a forest in the Tulugou national forest park, which is near Liancheng city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2912 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (4 and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 4 and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1.5 m), rain gauge (2 m), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south),infrared temperature sensors (2 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), soil heat flux (2 duplicates below the vegetation;-0.05 and -0.1m in south of tower), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (below the vegetation;-0.05 and -0.1m in south of tower), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_4 m and Ta_8 m; RH_4 m and RH_8 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_2 m, Ws_4 m, and Ws_8 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_2 m, WD_4 m, and WD_8 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_5 cm, Gs_10 cm) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5 cm, Ts_10 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5 cm, Ms_10 cm) (%, volumetric water content), soil water potential (SWP_5cm,SWP_10cm)(kpa), soil conductivity (EC_5cm,EC_10cm)(μs/cm), sun time (h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30.

0 2020-06-26

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dayekou Station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dayekou Station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (100.285° E, 38.555° N) was located on a glassland in the Dayekou, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2694 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (8 m), air pressure (2 m), rain gauge (2 m), infrared temperature sensors (2 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (below the vegetation, -0.05 m; towards south), soil soil temperature/moisture/electrical conductivity profile (-0.05 m) photosynthetically active radiation (2 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (2 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(2 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_8m; RH_3m, RH_5 m, RH_8m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_8m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_8m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil heat flux (Gs_5 cm) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5cm)(℃), soil moisture (Ms_5cm)(%, volumetric water content), photosynthetically active radiation (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil water potential (Swp_5cm)(kpa), soil conductivity (Ec_5cm)(μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30.

0 2020-06-24

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (93.708° E, 40.348° N) was located on a wetland in the Dunhuang west lake, Gansu Province. The elevation is 990 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (4m and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 4m and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (-0.05 and -0.1m ), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (below the vegetation in the south of tower, -0.05 and -0.2 m), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_4 m, Ta_8 m; RH_2 m, RH_4 m, RH_8 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_4 m, Ws_8 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m, WD_8 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_0.05m, Gs_0.1m) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0.05m, Ts_0.2m) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_0.05m, Ms_0.2m) (%, volumetric water content), soil conductivity (Ec_0.05m, Ec_0.2m)(μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The air humidity data were rejected due to program error. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30.

0 2020-06-24

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Guazhou Station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Guazhou Station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (95.673E, 41.405N) was located on a desert in the Liuyuan Guazhou, which is near Jiuquan city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2016 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 m, towards north), air pressure (1.5 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), soil heat flux (-0.05 m and -0.1m in south of tower), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile -0.05, -0.1m, -0.2m, -0.4m, -0.6m and -0.8m in south of tower), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_2 m, Ta_4 m, Ta_8 m, Ta_16 m, Ta_32 m, and Ta_48 m; RH_2 m, RH_4 m, RH_8 m, RH_16 m, RH_32 m, and RH_48 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_2 m, Ws_4 m, Ws_8 m, Ws_16 m, Ws_32 m, and Ws_48 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_2 m, WD_4 m, WD_8 m, WD_16 m, WD_32 m, and WD_48 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil heat flux (Gs_0.05m, Gs_0.1m) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_80 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_80 cm) (%, volumetric water content),soil water potential (SWP_5cm, SWP_10cm, SWP_20cm, SWP_40cm, SWP_60cm, and SWP_80cm)(kpa), soil conductivity (Ec_5cm, Ec_10cm, Ec_20cm, Ec_40cm, Ec_60cm, and Ec_80cm)(μs/cm), sun time (h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The data during August 3 to 24 were missing because the power supply failure; From April 4, 2019, 2m air temperature and humidity sensor failure; from May.10, 2019, 48m wind speed and direction sensor failure; from July, 2019, 10cm soil moisture sensor failure. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30.

0 2020-06-24

Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Linze Station, 2019)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Linze Station from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The site (100.060° E, 39.237° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Guzhai Xinghua, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1400 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (4 and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 4 and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1 m), rain gauge (4 m), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), soil heat flux (2 duplicates below the vegetation; -0.05 and -0.1m in south of tower), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (-0.2 and -0.4m), sunshine duration sensor (4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_4 m, Ta_8 m; RH_3 m, RH_4 m, RH_8 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_4 m, Ws_8 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m, WD_8 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing long wave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_5cm, Gs_10cm) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5 cm, Ts_10 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_5 cm, Ms_10 cm) (%, volumetric water content), soil water potential(SWP_5cm, SWP_10cm), soil conductivity (Ec_5cm,Ec_10cm) (μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day.The precipitation and the air humidity data were rejected due to program error. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2019-6-10 10:30.

0 2020-06-24

Meteorological observation data of Kunsha Glacier (2015-2017)

This data set includes the temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and other daily values in the observation point of Kunsha Glacier. The data is observed from October 3, 2015 to September 19, 2017. It is measured by automatic meteorological station (Onset Company) and a piece of data is recorded every 2 hours. The original data forms a continuous time series after quality control, and the daily mean index data is obtained through calculation. The original data meets the accuracy requirements of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation. Quality control includes eliminating the systematic error caused by the missing point data and sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.

0 2020-06-24

Meteorological data of the integrated observation and research station of Ngari for desert environment (2009-2017)

The data set includes meteorological data from the Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station from 2009 to 2017. It includes the following basic meteorological parameters: temperature (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: Celsius), relative humidity (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: %), wind speed (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: m/s), wind direction (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: degrees), atmospheric pressure (1.5 m from the ground, once every half hour, unit: hPa), precipitation (once every 24 hours, unit: mm), water vapour pressure (unit: kPa), evaporation (unit: mm), downward shortwave radiation (unit: W/m2), upward shortwave radiation (unit: W/m2), downward longwave radiation (unit: W/m2), upward longwave radiation (unit: W/m2), net radiation (unit: W/m2), surface albedo (unit: %). The temporal resolution of the data is one day. The data were directly downloaded from the Ngari automatic weather station. The precipitation data represent daily precipitation measured by the automatic rain and snow gauge and corrected based on manual observations. The other observation data are the daily mean value of the measurements taken every half hour. Instrument models of different observations: temperature and humidity: HMP45C air temperature and humidity probe; precipitation: T200-B rain and snow gauge sensor; wind speed and direction: Vaisala 05013 wind speed and direction sensor; net radiation: Kipp Zonen NR01 net radiation sensor; atmospheric pressure: Vaisala PTB210 atmospheric pressure sensor; collector model: CR 1000; acquisition interval: 30 minutes. The data table is processed and quality controlled by a particular person based on observation records. Observations and data acquisition are carried out in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications, and some data with obvious errors are removed when processing the data table.

0 2020-06-24

Monthly standard weather station dataset in Sanjiangyuan (1957-2015)

Monthly meteorological data of Sanjiangyuan includes 32 national standard meteorological stations. There are 26 variables: average local pressure, extreme maximum local pressure, date of extreme maximum local pressure, extreme minimum local pressure, date of extreme minimum local pressure, average temperature, extreme maximum temperature, date of extreme maximum temperature, extreme minimum temperature and date of extreme minimum temperature, average temperature anomaly, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, sunshine hours, percentage of sunshine, average relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, date of occurrence of minimum relative humidity, precipitation, days of daily precipitation >=0.1mm, maximum daily precipitation, date of maximum daily precipitation, percentage of precipitation anomaly, average wind speed, maximum wind speed, date of maximum wind speed, maximum wind speed, wind direction of maximum wind speed, wind direction of maximum wind speed and occurrence date of maximum wind speed. The data format is txt, named by the site ID, and each file has 26 columns. The names and units of each column are explained in the SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MON_readme.txt file. site_id lat lon elv name_cn 52754 37.33 100.13 8301.50 Gangcha 52833 36.92 98.48 7950.00 Wulan 52836 36.30 98.10 3191.10 Dulan 52856 36.27 100.62 2835.00 Qiapuqia 52866 36.72 101.75 2295.20 Xining 52868 36.03 101.43 2237.10 Guizhou 52908 35.22 93.08 4612.20 Wudaoliang 52943 35.58 99.98 3323.20 Xinghai 52955 35.58 100.75 8120.00 Guinan 52974 35.52 102.02 2491.40 Tongren 56004 34.22 92.43 4533.10 Togton He 56018 32.90 95.30 4066.40 Zaduo 56021 34.13 95.78 4175.00 Qumalai 56029 33.02 97.02 3681.20 Yushu 56033 34.92 98.22 4272.30 Maduo 56034 33.80 97.13 4415.40 Qingshui River 56038 32.98 98.10 9200.00 Shiqu 56043 34.47 100.25 3719.00 Guoluo 56046 33.75 99.65 3967.50 Dari 56065 34.73 101.60 8500.00 Henan 56067 33.43 101.48 3628.50 Jiuzhi 56074 34.00 102.08 3471.40 Maqu 56080 35.00 102.90 2910.00 Hezuo 56106 31.88 93.78 4022.80 Suo County 56116 31.42 95.60 3873.10 Dingqing 56125 32.20 96.48 3643.70 Nangqian 56128 31.22 96.60 3810.00 Leiwuqi 56137 31.15 97.17 3306.00 Changdu 56151 32.93 100.75 8530.00 Banma 56152 32.28 100.33 8893.90 Seda

0 2020-06-24

Daily standard weather station dataset in Sanjiangyuan region (1981-2015)

The files in this data set are named as: 1. Pressure of the station: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-PRS-10004-SITEID.TXT 2. Temperature: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-TEM-12001-SITEID.TXT 3. Relative humidity: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-RHU-13003-SITEID.TXT 4. Precipitation: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-PRE-13011-SITEID.TXT 5. Evaporation: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-EVP-13240-SITEID.TXT 6. Wind direction and wind speed: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-WIN-11002-SITEID.TXT 7. Sunshine: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-SSD-14032-SITEID.TXT 8.0cm Ground Temperature: SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY-GST-12030-0cm-SITEID.TXT Detailed format descriptions for each data file are given in the SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY_FORMAT.doc file. The meteorological site information contained in this data set is as follows: Site_id lat lon ELV name_En 52754 37.33 100.13 8301.50 Gangcha 52833 36.92 98.48 7950.00 Uran 52836 36.30 98.10 3191.10 Dulan 52856 36.27 100.62 2835.00 Chabcha 52866 36.72 101.75 2295.20 Xining 52868 36.03 101.43 2237.10 Guizhou 52908 35.22 93.08 4612.20 Wu Daoliang 52943 35.58 99.98 3323.20 Xinghai 52955 35.58 100.75 8120.00 Guinan 52974 35.52 102.02 2491.40 Tongren 56004 34.22 92.43 4533.10 Toto River 56018 32.90 95.30 4066.40 Zaduo 56021 34.13 95.78 4175.00 Qumalai 56029 33.02 97.02 3681.20 Yushu 56033 34.92 98.22 4272.30 Maddo 56034 33.80 97.13 4415.40 Qingshui River 56038 32.98 98 98.10 9200.00 Shiqu 56 043 34.47 100.25 3719.00 Golo 56 046 33.75 99.65 3967.50 Dari 56065 34.73 101.60 8500.00 Henan 56 067 33.43 101.48 3628.50 Jiuzhi 56074 34.00 102.08 3471.40 Marqu 56080 35.00 102.90 2910.00 Hezuo 56106 31.88 93.78 4022.80 Suoxian 56116 31.42 95.60 3873.10 Ding Qing 56125 32.20 96.48 3643.70 Xiangqian 56128. 31.22. 96.60. 3810.00 Leiwuqi 56 137 31.15 97.17 3306.00 Changdu 56151 32.93 100.75 8530.00 Banma 56152 32.28 100.33 8893.90 Saida

0 2020-06-23