The “Long-term series of daily global snow depth” was produced using the passive microwave remote sensing data. The temporal range is 1979~2017, and the coverage is the global land. The spatial resolutions is 25,067.53 m and the temporal resolution is daily. A dynamic brightness temperature gradient algorithm was used to derive snow depth. In this algorithm, the spatial and temporal variations of snow characteristics were considered and the spatial and seasonal dynamic relationships between the temperature difference between 18 GHz and 36 GHz and the measured snow depth were established. The long-term sequence of satellite-borne passive microwave brightness temperature data used to derive snow depth came from three sensors (SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S), and there is a certain system inconsistency among them. So, the inter-sensor calibration was performed to improve the temporal consistency of these brightness temperature data before snow depth derivation. The accuracy analysis shows that the relative deviation of Eurasia snow depth data is within 30%. The data are stored as a txt file every day, each file is a 1383*586 snow depth matrix, and each snow depth represents a 25,067.53m* 25,067.53m grid. The projection of this data is EASE-Grid, and following is the file header which describes the projection detail. File header: ncols 1383 nrows 586 xllcorner -17334193.54 yllcorner -7344787.75 cellsize 25,067.53 NODATA_value -1
Wildfires can strongly affect the frozen soil environment by burning surface vegetation and soil organic matter. Vegetation affected by fire can take many years to return to mature pre-fire levels. In this data set, the effects of fires on vegetation regrowth in a frozen-ground tundra environment in the Anaktuvuk River Basin on the North Slope of Alaska were studied by quantifying changes in C-band and L-band SAR backscatter data over 15 years (2002-2017). After the fire, the C- and L-band backscattering coefficients increased by 5.5 and 4.4 dB, respectively, in the severe fire area compared to the unburned area. Five years after the fire, the difference in C-band backscattering between the fire zone and the unburned zone decreased, indicating that the post-fire vegetation level had recovered to the level of the unburned zone. This long recovery time is longer than the 3-year recovery estimated from visible wavelength-based NDVI observations. In addition, after 10 years of vegetation recovery, the backscattering of the L-band in the severe fire zone remains approximately 2 dB higher than that of the unburned zone. This continued difference may be caused by an increase in surface roughness. Our analysis shows that long-term SAR backscattering data sets can quantify vegetation recovery after fire in an Arctic tundra environment and can also be used to supplement visible-wavelength observations. The temporal coverage of the backscattering data is from 2002 to 2017, with a time resolution of one month, and the data cover the Anaktuvuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska. The spatial resolution is 30~100 m, the C- and L-band data are separated, and a GeoTIFF file is stored every month. For details on the data, see SAR Backscattering Data of the Anaktuvuk River Basin on the North Slope of Alaska - Data Description.
The data set is NDVI data of long time series acquired by NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor. The time range of the data set is from 1982 to 2015. In order to remove the noise in NDVI data, maximum synthesis and multi-sensor contrast correction are carried out. A NDVI image is synthesized every half month. The data set is widely used in the analysis of long-term vegetation change trend. The data set is cut out from the global data set, so as to carry out the research and analysis of the source areas of the three rivers separately. The data format of this data set is GeoTIFF with spatial resolution of 8 km and temporal resolution of 2 weeks, ranging from 1982 to 2015. Data transfer coefficient is 10000, NDVI = ND/10000.
ALOS PRISM dataset includes 13 scenes; one covers the A'rou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008, one covers the Haichaoba on Mar. 19, 2008, one covers the Biandukou foci experimental area on Apr. 17, 2008, and one covers the Linze grassland and Linze station foci experimental areas on Apr. 22, 2008. The data version is LB2, which was released after radiometric correction and geometric correction.
Ⅰ. Overview Landsat5 was launched in March 1984. The Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor on it includes seven bands, except for the 6th band with a resolution of 120 m, the other 6 bands have a resolution of 30 m. This data set was collected in 1990 and 2010. There are 77 scenes of TM data in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Ⅱ. Data processing description The product level is L1 and has been geometrically corrected. Ⅲ. Data content description The naming method is LT5 line number column number _ column number year month day, such as LT5129032_03220040816. Ⅳ. Data usage description The main applications are soil use / cover and desertification monitoring.
This data set includes the microwave brightness temperatures obtained by the spaceborne microwave radiometer SSM/I carried by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite. It contains the twice daily (ascending and descending) brightness temperatures of seven channels, which are 19H, 19V, 22V, 37H, 37V, 85H, and 85V. The Specialized Microwave Imager (SSM/I) was developed by the Hughes Corporation of the United States. In 1987, it was first carried into the space on the Block 5D-/F8 satellite of the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) to perform a detection mission. In the 10 years from when the DMSP soared to orbit in 1987 to when the TRMM soared to orbit in 1997, the SSM/I was the world's most advanced spaceborne passive microwave remote sensing detection instrument, having the highest spatial resolution in the world. The DMSP satellite is in a near-polar circular solar synchronous orbit; the elevation is approximately 833 km, the inclination is 98.8 degrees, and the orbital period is 102.2 minutes. It passes through the equator at approximately 6:00 local time and covers the whole world once every 24 hours. The SSM/I consists of seven channels set at four frequencies, and the center frequencies are 19.35, 22.24, 37.05, and 85.50 GHz. The instrument actually comprises seven independent, total-power, balanced-mixing, superheterodyne passive microwave radiometer systems, and it can simultaneously measure microwave radiation from Earth and the atmospheric systems. Except for the 22.24 GHz frequency, all the frequencies have both horizontal and vertical polarization states. Some Eigenvalues of SSM/I Channel Frequency (GHz) Polarization Mode (V/H) Spatial Resolution (km * km) Footprint Size (km) 19V 19.35 V 25×25 56 19H 19.35 H 25×25 56 22V 22.24 V 25×25 45 37V 37.05 V 25×25 33 37H 37.05 H 25×25 33 85V 85.50 V 12.5×12.5 14 85H 85.50 H 12.5×12.5 14 1. File Format and Naming: Each group of data consists of remote sensing data files, .JPG image files and .met auxiliary information files as well as .TIM time information files and the corresponding .met time information auxiliary files. The data file names and naming rules for each group in the SSMI_Grid_China directory are as follows: China-EASE-Fnn-ML/HaaaabbbA/D.ccH/V (remote sensing data); China-EASE-Fnn -ML/HaaaabbbA/D.ccH/V.jpg (image file); China-EASE-Fnn-ML/HaaaabbbA/D.ccH/V.met (auxiliary information document); China-EASE-Fnn-ML/HaaaabbbA/D.TIM (time information file); and China-EASE- Fnn -ML/HaaaabbbA/D.TIM.met (time information auxiliary file). Among them, EASE stands for EASE-Grid projection mode; Fnn represents carrier satellite number (F08, F11, and F13); ML/H represents multichannel low resolution and multichannel high resolution; A/D stands for ascending (A) and descending (D); aaaa represents the year; bbb represents the Julian day of the year; cc represents the channel number (19H, 19V, 22V, 37H, 37V, 85H, and 85V); and H/V represents horizontal polarization (H) and vertical polarization (V). 2. Coordinate System and Projection: The projection method is an equal-area secant cylindrical projection, and the double standard latitude is 30 degrees north and south. For more information on EASE-GRID, please refer to http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/globalgrids-book/ease_grid/. If you need to convert the EASE-Grid projection method into a geographic projection method, please refer to the ease2geo.prj file, which reads as follows. Input Projection cylindrical Units meters Parameters 6371228 6371228 1 /* Enter projection type (1, 2, or 3) 0 00 00 /* Longitude of central meridian 30 00 00 /* Latitude of standard parallel Output Projection GEOGRAPHIC Spheroid KRASovsky Units dd Parameters End 3. Data Format: Stored as binary integers, each datum occupies 2 bytes. The data that are actually stored in this data set are the brightness temperatures *10, and after reading the data, they need to be divided by 10 to obtain true brightness temperature. 4. Data Resolution: Spatial resolution: 25 km, 12.5 km (SSM/I 85 GHz); Time resolution: day by day, from 1978 to 2007. 5. The Spatial Coverage: Longitude: 60°-140° east longitude; Latitude: 15°-55° north latitude. 6. Data Reading: Each group of data includes remote sensing image data files, .JPG image files and .met auxiliary information files. The JPG files can be opened with Windows image and fax viewers. The .met auxiliary information files can be opened with notepad, and the remote sensing image data files can be opened in ENVI and ERDAS software.
Ⅰ. Overview Landsat5 was launched in April 1999. As a supplement and enhancement to the Landsat series, it carries an EMT+ sensor. The parameters of each band are close to that of Landsat5, but the panchromatic band with a resolution of 15 m is added, and the resolution of thermal infrared band is increased to 60 m.This dataset was collected in 1999-2010. There were 97 scenes of TM data in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Due to sensor damage, there were bands in the images. Ⅱ. Data processing description Product level is L1 and has been geometrically corrected. Ⅲ. Data content description The naming method is L5 and row number and column number _ column number and date (yyyymmdd), such as L75129032_03220040816. Ⅳ. Data usage description The main applications are soil use/cover and desertification monitoring.
In 2007 and 2008, Landsat data set 49 scenes, covering the entire black river basin. The acquisition time is:2007-08-12, 2007-09-23, 2008-01-05, 2008-02-06, 2008-03-17, 2008-03-25, 2008-05-10, 2008-05-19, 2008-05-28, 2008-06-04, 2008-07-07, 2008-07-15, 2008-07-22, 2008-07-23, 2008-08-16, 2008-08-30,2008-09-08, 2008-09-15, 2008-09-17, 2008-10-01, 2008-10-10, 2008-10-19, 2008-10-26, 2008-11-02, 2008-11-04, 2008-11-18, 2008-11-20, 2008-11-27, 2008-12-06, 2008-12-13, 2008-12-14. The product is class L1 and has been geometrically corrected.It includes 4 scenes of TM image and 45 scenes of ETM+ image. The Landsat satellite remote sensing data set of heihe integrated remote sensing joint experiment was obtained through free download.
The Landsat TM Mosaic Image of the Heihe River Basin can be effectively applied to monitoring land-use change of the basin, which reflects the current situation of the Heihe River Basin in 2010, and provides a reliable basis for ecological planning and restoration. This mosaic image collected the TM images released by the USGS for free in 2010 (data from July to September 2010, totally 21 scenes, the maximum cloud amount is less than 10%), and the preprocessed images were geometrically registered by topographic maps(polynomial geometry correction method), then a geometrically-corrected digital mosaic map was generated, which was of high quality after a certain accuracy evaluation. The images were stored in ERDAS IMG format, and the most abundant bands 5, 4 and 3 combination, with three colors: red, green, and blue were selected to generate a color composite image. The combined composite image not only is similar to natural color, which is more in accordance with people's visual habits, but also can fully display the differences in image features because of the rich amount of information.
Terra (EOS am-1), the flagship of the EOS earth observation series, was the first satellite to be launched on December 18, 1999.ASTER is primarily used for high-resolution observations of surface radiation balance. Compared with Landsat series satellites, ASTER has improved spectral and spatial resolution, and significantly increased short-wave infrared and thermal infrared bands.ASTER has a total of 14 wavebands, including 3 visible and near-infrared wavebands, 5 short-wave infrared wavebands and 5 thermal infrared wavebands. The resolution is 15m, 30m and 90m respectively, and the scanning width is 60km, 30m and 90m respectively.Heihe river basin ASTER remote sensing image data set through the international cooperation data from NASA's web site (https://wist.echo.nasa.gov/). Data naming rules as follows: assuming that the name of the ASTER image for "ASTL1B0103190215190103290064", then ASTL1B said ASTER L1B products, 003 on behalf of the version number namely VersionID, (010319) represents the next 6 digits observation date will be March 19, 2001, followed by six digits (021519) represents the observation time (02:15:19), followed by the last six digits (010329) representing the processing date is March 29, 2001, the last four digits (0064) representing the four-digit sequence code. At present, there are 258 scents of ASTER data in heihe river basin.The acquisition time is:2000-04-25, 2000-04-27 (2 scenes), 2000-05-04, 2000-05-15 (4 scenes), 2000-05-20 (9 scenes), 2000-05-29 (3 scenes), 2000-05-31 (2 scenes), 2000-06-12, 2000-06-14 (5 scenes), 2000-06-21 (3 scenes), 2000-06-30 (8 scenes), 2000-07-18, 2000-07-23 (3 scenes), 2000-08-03 (4 scenes),2000-08-08 (9 scenes), 2000-08-17 (7 scenes), 2000-08-19 (4 scenes), 2000-08-26 (3 scenes), 2000-09-02 (4 scenes), 2000-10-02 (7 scenes), 2000-10-04 (6 scenes), 2000-10-29 (3 scenes), 2000-11-21, 2001-02-18 (2 scenes), 2001-02-25, 2001-03-11 (5 scenes), 2001-03-22 (4 scenes),2001-03-27 (4 scenes), 2001-03-29 (9 scenes), 2001-04-07 (2 scenes), 2001-04-12 (2 scenes), 2001-04-14 (6 scenes), 2001-07-10, 2001-07-12 (8 scenes), 2001-07-21 (8 scenes), 2001-08-13 (8 scenes), 2001-08-20 (7 scenes), 2001-08-22, 2001-08-27 (2 scenes), 2001-08-29,2001-09-03 (2 scenes), 2001-11-15 (7 scenes), 2002-02-01, 2002-03-30 (2 scenes), 2002-04-17 (2 scenes), 2002-05-24, 2002-06-04 (6 scenes), 2002-06-09, 2002-06-13, 2002-06-25, 2002-08-14 (3 scenes), 2002-09-29, 2002-10-19 (2 scenes), 2002-11-11 (2 scenes),2002-12-29 (4 scenes), 2003-04-18, 2003-05-24 (2 scenes), 2003-07-25, 2003-07-30, 2003-8-10 (5 scenes), 2003-08-12, 2003-08-17, 2003-09-09 (11 scenes), 2003-09-13 (4 scenes), 2003-10-15, 2003-10-18, 2003-10-29 (9 scenes), 2003-11-30, 2004-03-14, 2005-03-20,2005-06-05, 2005-08-11, 2007-10-22, 2007-11-14, 2007-11-23, 2007-12-04, 2008-01-28, 2008-02-13, 2008-05-03 (4 scenes), 2008-05-05, 2008-05-17, 2008-06-04 (2 scenes), 2008-06-13.