HiWATER:Landsat ETM+ dataset (2012)

This dataset includes five scenes, covering the artificial oasis eco-hydrology experimental area of the Heihe River Basin, which were acquired on (yy-mm-dd) 2012-04-05, 2012-04-21, 2012-05-07, 2012-06-24, 2012-07-10. The data were all acquired around 11:50 (BJT) with data product of Level 2. Landsat ETM+ dataset was downloaded from http://glovis.usgs.gov/.

0 2020-05-28

HiWATER: Radarsat-2 dataset on July. 06, 2012

This dataset includes one scene acquired on (yy-mm-dd hh:mm, BJT) 2012-07-06 06:30, covering the artificial oasis eco-hydrology experimental area of the Heihe River Basin. This datum was acquired at Stripmap-Quad mode with product level of SLC, and this image includes VV, VH, HH and HV polarization with a spatial resolution of 8 m. Radarsat-2 dataset was acquired from the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Courtesy: Dr. Chen Quan).

0 2020-05-28

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Bajitan Gobi desert station, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Bajitan Gobi station eddy covariance system (EC) in the middle reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 18 September, 2012, to 31 December, 2013. The site (100.304° E, 38.915° N) was located in the Gobi surface, near Zhangye city in Gansu Province. The elevation is 1562 m. The EC was installed at a height of 4.6 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.15 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), which represent high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. Data during 22 May to 13 June, 2013 were missing due to malfunction of data logger. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Bajitan Gobi desert station, 2014)

This data set contains eddy correlativity observation data from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 at the gobi station in baji tan, middle reaches of the heihe hydrometeorological observation network.The station is located in zhangye city, gansu province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 100.30420E, 38.91496N and 1562.00m above sea level.The rack height of the vortex correlative is 4.6m, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Suspicious data caused by instrument drift, etc., shall be marked in red font.On March 2, solstice, March 31, October 13, solstice, November 14, and December 12, solstice, December 31, 10Hz data was missing due to the memory card storage data problems, which were replaced by the 30-min flux data output by the collector. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), stability Z/L (dimensionless), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al.(2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al.(2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (automatic weather station of Bajitan Gobi desert station, 2013)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Hydrometeorological observation network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the Bajitan Gobi desert station between 21 September, 2012, and 31 December, 2013. The site (100.304° E, 38.915° N) was located on a Gobi desert surface in the Bajitan, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1562 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45AC; 5 and 10 m, north), wind speed profile (010C; 5 and 10 m, north), wind direction profile (020C; 10 m, north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFT3; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m, 2 m in the south), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1 m), and soil moisture profile (ECh2o-5; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -1 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m; RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm and Ts_100 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm and Ms_100 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2013-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydro-meteorological observation network (automatic weather station of Bajitan Gobi Desert Station, 2014)

The data set contains the observation data of meteorological elements from the Bajitan Gobi Desert Station, which is located along the middle reaches of the Heihe Hydro-meteorological Observation Network, and the data set covers data from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The station is located in Bajitan, West Zhangye City, Gansu Province, the underlying surface is Gobi. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.3042E, 38.9150N, and the altitude is 1562m. The air temperature and relative humidity sensors are erected 5 and 10 meters above the ground, facing North; the barometer is installed 2 meters above the ground; tipping bucket rain gauge is installed 10 meters above the ground; the wind speed sensors are set 5 and 10 meters above the ground, facing North; the four-component radiometer is installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South; two infrared thermometers are installed 6 meters above the ground, facing South, and the probe orientation is vertical downward; the soil temperature probes are buried respectively at 0cm on the ground surface, 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm under the ground, they are located 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the North. The soil moisture sensors are buried 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm under the ground, 2 meters from the meteorological tower in the South; the soil heat flow boards (3 pieces) are buried 6cm under the ground. Observed items include: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m、RH_5m、Ta_10m、RH_10m) (unit: Celsius, percentage), pressure(Press) (unit:hectopascal), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_5m、WS_10m) (unit: meter / sec), wind direction (WD_10m) (unit: degree), four-component radiation (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watt / square meter), surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit: Celsius) , soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: watt / square meter), soil moisture (Ms_2cm、Ms_4cm、Ms_10cm、Ms_20cm、Ms_40cm、Ms_60cm、Ms_100cm) (unit: volumetric water content, percentage), soil temperature (Ts_0cm、Ts_2cm、Ts_4cm、Ts_10cm、Ts_20cm、Ts_40cm、Ts_60cm、Ts_100cm) (unit : Celsius). Processing and quality control of observation data: (1) Ensure 144 data per day (every 10 minutes), if there is missing data, it is marked as -6999. Due to sensor problem, Ms_40cm data between January 1 and March 2 had a large fluctuation, it can only be used as reference. (2) Eliminate moments with duplicate records; (3) Remove data that is significantly beyond physical meaning or beyond the measuring range of the instrument; (4) Data marked by red is debatable; (5) The formats of the date and time are uniform, and the date and time are in the same column. For example, the time is: 2014-6-10 10:30; (6) The naming rule is: AWS + site name. For hydro-meteorological network or site information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (automatic weather station of Bajitan Gobi desert station, 2015)

This data set contains meteorological element observation data of baji tan gobi station in the middle reaches of heihe hydrological meteorological observation network from January 1, 2015 to April 13, 2015. The station is located at baji beach, chengxiye city, zhangye city, gansu province, and the underlying surface is gobi.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 100.3042e, 38.9150n and 1562m above sea level.Air temperature and relative humidity sensors are set at 5m and 10m, facing due north;The barometer is installed at 2m;The tilting bucket rain gauge is installed at 10m;The wind speed sensor is set at 5m and 10m, and the wind direction sensor is set at 10m, facing due north;The four-component radiometer is installed at 6m, facing due south;Two infrared thermometers are installed at 6m, facing due south, and the probe facing vertically downward;The soil temperature probe is buried at 0cm of the surface and 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm underground, 2m to the south of the meteorological tower.The soil water sensor is buried 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 100cm underground, 2m to the south of the meteorological tower.The soil hot plates (3 pieces) are buried 6cm underground. Observation projects are: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m RH_5m Ta_10m, RH_10m) (unit: c, percentage), pressure (Press) (unit: hundred mpa), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_5m, WS_10m) (unit: m/s), wind (WD_10m) (unit: degrees), the radiation of four component (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watts per square meter), the surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit:C), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (in watts/m2), soil moisture (Ms_2cm, Ms_4cm, Ms_10cm, Ms_20cm, Ms_40cm, Ms_60cm, Ms_100cm) (unit: volumetric water content, percentage), and soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_2cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_60cm, Ts_100cm) (unit: Celsius). Processing and quality control of observed data :(1) ensure 144 pieces of data every day (every 10min), and mark by -6999 in case of data missing;(2) excluding the time with duplicate records;(3) data that obviously exceeds the physical significance or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the part marked with red letter in the data is the data in question;(5) date and time have the same format, and date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: June 10, 2015, 10:30;(6) the naming rule is: AWS+ site name.The station will be demolished after April 13. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Daman Superstation, 2015)

This data set contains the observation data of vortex-correlograph in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.The station is located in the daman irrigation district of zhangye city, gansu province.The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.37223E, 38.85551N, and the altitude is 1556.06m.The rack height of the vortex correlativity meter is 4.5m, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature meter (CSAT3) and CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500A) is 17cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Li7500A of the eddy current system was calibrated from April 12 to 14, and data was missing. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), Mr. Hoff length L (m), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Daman Superstation, 2016)

This data set contains the observation data of vortex-correlograph in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016.The station is located in the daman irrigation district of zhangye city, gansu province.The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.37223E, 38.85551N, and the altitude is 1556.06m.The rack height of the vortex correlativity meter is 4.5m, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is due north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature meter (CSAT3) and CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500A) is 17cm. The original observation data of the vortex correlativity instrument is 10Hz, and the published data is the 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main processing steps include: outliers, delay time correction, coordinate rotation (quadratic coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction.Quality assessment for each intercompared to at the same time, mainly is the atmospheric stability (Δ st) and turbulent characteristics of similarity (ITC) test.The 30min pass value output by Eddypro software was also screened :(1) data when instrument error was eliminated;(2) data of 1h before and after precipitation are excluded;(3) remove the data with a missing rate of more than 10% in the original 10Hz data within every 30 minutes;(4) the observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1m/s) were excluded.The average observation period was 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data was marked as -6999.Due to the power failure from March 3 to 23, the Li7500A of the vortex system was calibrated from April 17 to 25, and the collector problems from October 10 to 24 and December 19 to 31 led to data loss. The published observational data include:Date/Time for the Date/Time, wind Wdir (°), Wnd horizontal wind speed (m/s), standard deviation Std_Uy lateral wind speed (m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv (℃), the water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar) (m/s), Mr. Hoff length L (m), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), the quality of the sensible heat flux identifier QA_Hs, the quality of the latent heat flux identifier QA_LE,Quality indicator for co2 flux QA_Fc.The quality of the sensible heat and latent heat, carbon dioxide flux identification is divided into three (quality id 0: (Δ st < 30, the ITC < 30);1: (Δ st < 100, ITC < 100);The rest is 2).The meaning of data time, such as 0:30 represents the average of 0:00-0:30;The data is stored in *.xls format. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10

HiWATER: Dataset of hydro-meteorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Daman superstation, 2017)

The data set contains eddy covariance System observation data of Daman super station which is located in the middle reaches of the Heihe Hydro-meteorological Observation Network from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017. The site is located in Daman Irrigation District, Zhangye, Gansu Province, and the underlying surface is corn. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.37223E, 38.85551N, and the altitude is 1556.06m. The mount height of the Eddy Covariance System is 4.5 m, the sampling frequency is 10 Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is positive North, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed temperature meter (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 17 cm. The original observation data of the Eddy Covariance System is 10 Hz, and the released data is a 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main steps of the processing include: outlier eliminating, delay time correction, coordinates rotation (secondary coordinates rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction, etc. Meanwhile, the quality evaluation of each flux value was performed,mainly includes atmospheric stability (Δst) test and turbulence similarity (ITC) test. The 30-min flux value output of Eddypro software was also screened: (1) Data from the instrument error was eliminated; (2) Data obtained with one hour before and after precipitation was removed; (3) Data with a deletion rate greater than 10% of the 10 Hz raw data every 30 minutes was eliminated; (4) Observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1 m/s) was excluded. The average period of observation data is 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data is marked as -6999. The data of April 3 and 4 was missing due to Li7500 calibration of the eddy system; data from August 29 to September 5 was missing due to collector problem. Published observation data include: Date/Time, wind direction(°), horizontal wind speed(m/s), lateral wind speed standard deviation(m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature (°C), water vapor density (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration(mg/m3), friction velocity (m/s), length (m), sensible heat flux(W/m2), latent heat flux (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (mg/(m2s)), sensible heat flux quality identification QA_Hs, latent heat flux quality identification QA_LE, carbon dioxide flux quality identification QA_Fc. The quality identification of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide flux is divided into three levels (quality mark 0: (Δst <30, ITC<30); 1: (Δst <100, ITC<100); the rest is 2). The meaning of the data time, such as 0:30 represents an average data of 0:00-0:30; the data is stored in *.xls format. For hydro-meteorological network or station information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2020-04-10