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Annual mean land surface temperature over the Tibet plateau

The Tibetan plateau (TP), called as “the third pole of the earth” is the water tower of Asia not only feed tens of millions of people, but also maintain fragile ecosystems in arid region of northwestern China. Temporal-spatially complete representations of land surface temperature are required for many purposes in environmental science, especially in third pole where the traditional ground measurement is difficult and therefore the data is sparse. The cloud-free datasets of daily mean land surface temperature (LST) and mean annual land surface temperature (MAST) during 2004 to 2016 were released and derived from the quartic daily MODIS (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra/Aqua LST products with a resolution of 1 km using a pragmatic data processing algorithm (Ran et al., 2015; 2017a). The comparison between radiance-based LST measurement and the estimated LST shows good agreement in the daily and inter-annual variability, with a correlation of 0.95 and 0.99 and bias of -1.73℃ (±3.38℃) and -2.07℃ (±1.05℃) for daily-mean-LST and MAST, respectively (Ran et al., 2017c). The systematic error is mainly source from the defined of daily mean LST, which is represented by the arithmetic average of the daytime and nighttime LSTs. The random error is mainly source from the uncertainty of the original MODIS LST values, especially for the daytime LST products. Trend validation using air temperatures from 94 weather stations indicate that the warming trends derived from time series MAST data is comparable with that derived from CMA data. The dataset is potential useful for various studies, including climatology, hydrology, meteorology, ecology, agriculture, public health, and environmental monitoring in the third pole and around regions.

2019-08-19 0 0 online More

Dataset of town boundary in Three River Source National Park (2015)

This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.

2019-04-29 0 4 offline More


This dataset includes 12 scenes, covering the artificial oasis eco-hydrology experimental area of the Heihe River Basin, which were acquired on (yy-mm-dd) 2012-05-30, 2012-06-15, 2012-06-24, 2012-07-10, 2012-08-02, 2012-08-11, 2012-08-18, 2012-08-27, 2012-09-03, 2012-09-12, 2012-09-19, 2012-09-28. The data were all acquired around 12:00 (BJT) at Level 1A, i.e., without atmospheric and geometric correction. ASTER dataset was purchased from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).

2019-05-23 0 0 offline More

HiWATER: Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (No.7 runoff observation system of Pingchuan bridge on the Heihe River)

The No. 7 hydrological section is located at Pingchuan Heihe River Bridge (100.097° E, 39.334° N, 1375 m) in the midstream of the Heihe River Basin, Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The dataset contains observations recorded by the No.7 hydrological section from 17 June, 2012, to 31 December, 2013. The width of this section is 130 meters. The water level was measured using an SR50 ultrasonic range and the discharge was measured using cross-section reconnaissance by the StreamPro ADCP. The dataset includes the following parameters: water level (recorded every 30 minutes) and discharge. The missing and incorrect (outside the normal range) data were replaced with -6999. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), He et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-05-23 0 0 offline More

HiWATER: Airborne LiDAR-DSM data production in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin

On 19 July 2012 (UTC+8), Leica ALS70 airborne laser scanner carried by the Harbin Y-12 aircraft was used in a LiDAR airborne optical remote sensing experiment. The relative flight altitude is 1500 m (the elevation of 2700 m). Leica ALS70 airborne laser scanner has unlimited numbers of returns intensities measurements including the first, second ,third return intensities. The wavelength of laser light is 1064 nm with the point cloud density 4 points per square meter. Based on the original Airborne LiDAR-DSM data production were obtained through parameter calibration, automatic classification of point cloud density and manual editing.

2019-05-23 0 0 offline More

Source Region of Yellow River - Land Cover and Vegetation Type Ground Verification Point Dataset

The dataset is the ground verification point dataset of land cover and vegetation type in the Source Region of Yellow River (in the north of Zaling Lake, Qinghai Province) which collected during August 2018. In the dataset, the homogeneous patches are considered as the main targets of this collection. They are easy to be recognized out and distinguished from other vegetation types. And these samples have high representativeness comparing with other land surface features. In each sample, the geographical references, longitude and latitude (degree, minute, second), time (24h) and elevation (0.1m) are recorded firstly according to GPS positioning. Vegetation types, constructive species, characteristics, land types and features, landmarks, etc. are recorded into the property table manually for checking in laboratory. At last, each sample place has been taken at least 1 photography. In this dataset, 90% or more samples have been taken 2 or more in field landscape photographs for land use type and vegetation classification examination. We have carefully examined the position accuracy of each sample in Google Earth. After 2 rounds of checking and examination, the accuracy and reliability of the property of each sample have been guaranteed.

2019-07-23 0 2 online More

HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset - flux observation matrix (an automatic weather station of site No.9)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.9 in the flux observation matrix from 4 June to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.38546° E, 38.87239° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1543.34 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (010C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, and Ts_4 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm and Ms_4 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-05-23 0 0 offline More

HiWATER:Dataset of Hydrometeorological Observation Network (Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture of Daman Superstation, 2017)

The data set contains observation data of cosmic-ray instrument (crs) from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017. The site is located in the farmland of Daman Irrigation District, Zhangye, Gansu Province, and the underlying surface is cornfield. The latitude and longitude of the observation site is 100.3722E, 38.8555N, the altitude is 1556 meters. The bottom of the instrument probe is 0.5 meter from the ground, and the sampling frequency is 1 hour. The original observation items of the cosmic-ray instrument include: voltage Batt (V), temperature T (°C), relative humidity RH (%), air pressure P (hPa), fast neutron number N1C (number / hour), thermal neutron number N2C (number / hour), fast neutron sampling time N1ET (s) and thermal neutron sampling time N2ET (s). The data was released after being processed and calculated. The data includes: Date Time, P (pressure hPa), N1C (fast neutrons one/hour), N1C_cor (pressure-corrected fast neutrons one/hour) and VWC ( soil water content %), it was processed mainly by the following steps: 1) Data Screening There are four criteria for data screening: (1) Eliminating data with a voltage less than or equal to 11.8 volts ; (2) Eliminating data with a relative humidity greater than or equal to 80%; (3) Eliminating data with a sampling time interval not within 60 ± 1 minute; (4) Eliminating data with fast neutrons that vary by more than 200 in one hour. In addition, missing data is supplemented with -6999. 2) Air Pressure Correction The original data is corrected by air pressure according to the fast neutron pressure correction formula mentioned in the instrument manual, and the corrected fast neutron number N1C_cor is obtained. 3) Instrument Calibration In the process of calculating soil moisture, it is necessary to calibrate the N0 in the calculation formula. N0 is the number of fast neutrons under the situation with low antecedent soil moisture . Usually, soil samples in the source area are used to obtain measured soil moisture (or obtained by relatively dense soil moisture wireless sensors) θm (Zreda et al. 2012) and the fast neutron correction data N in corresponding time periods, then NO can be obtained by reversing the formula. Here, the instrument is calibrated according to the Soilnet soil moisture data in the source region of the instrument, and the relationship between the soil volumetric water content θv and the fast neutron is established. The data of June 26-27, and July 16-17, respectively, which have obvious differences in dry and wet conditions, were selected. The data from June 26 to 27 showed low soil moisture content, so the average of the three values of 4 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm was used as the calibration data, and the variation range was 22% to 30%; meanwhile , the data from July 16 to 17 showed high soil moisture content, so the average of the two values of 4cm and 10 cm was used as the calibration data, and the variation range was 28% - 39%, and the final average N0 was 3597. 4) Soil Moisture Calculation According to the formula, the hourly soil water content data is calculated.

2019-07-09 0 1 offline More

Cultivated Oasis Distribution in the Heihe River Basin During the Historical Period

Based on historical documents, topographic maps and remote sensing images in the 1960s, the distribution and area data of the ancient oasis in the Heihe River Basin from the Han Dynasty to the Republic of China Period were reconstructed using landmarks such as residential points and irrigation canals. The data is provided in ArcGIS's shapefile format, applying the WGS 1984 UTM coordinate system, the Transverse Mercator projection grid, and the central warp 99°E. The data type is polygon vector, and the attribute data includes the area.

2019-07-10 0 0 offline More

1:100000 Topographic Index of Heihe River Basin

The “Eco-Hydro Integrated Atlas of Heihe River Basin” is supported by the Synthetic Research on the Eco-hydrological Process of the Heihe River Basin– a key project to provide data collation and service for the Heihe River Basin eco-hydrological process integration study. This atlas will provide researchers with a comprehensive and detailed introduction to the Heihe River Basin background and basic data sets. The 1:100,000 topographic framing index of the Heihe River Basin is one of the basic geographs of the atlas, with a scale of 1:2500000, Lambert conformal conic projection, and a standard latitude: north latitude 25 47 . Data source: 1:100000 topographic map index data, Heihe River boundary.

2019-07-18 0 0 offline More