Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of A’rou Superstation, 2018)


This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of A’rou Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.464° E, 38.047° N) was located on a cold grassland surface in the Caodaban village, A’rou Town, Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3033 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45C; 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 m, towards north), wind speed profile (010C; 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 m, towards north), wind direction profile (020C; 2 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 5 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 5 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 5 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR-LITE; 5 m, towards south, vertically upward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m, 2 m in the south of tower), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m, 2 m in the south of tower), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.06, -0.1, -0.15, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2, -2.4, -2.8 and -3.2 m, 3 duplicates in -0.04 m and -0.1 m), and soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.06, -0.1, -0.15, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2, -2.4, -2.8 and -3.2 m, 3 duplicates in -0.04 m and -0.1 m).

The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1 m, Ta_2 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m and Ta_25 m; RH_1 m, RH_2 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m and RH_25 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_1 m, Ws_2 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m and Ws_25 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_2 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/(s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm_1, Ts_4 cm_2, Ts_4 cm_3, Ts_6 cm, Ts_10 cm_1, Ts_10 cm_2, Ts_10 cm_3, Ts_15 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_30 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, Ts_160 cm, Ts_200 cm, Ts_240 cm, Ts_280 cm and Ts_320 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm_1, Ms_4 cm_2, Ms_4 cm_3, Ms_6 cm, Ms_10 cm_1, Ms_10 cm_2, Ms_10 cm_3, Ms_15 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_30 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, Ms_160 cm, Ms_200 cm, Ms_240 cm, Ms_280 cm and Ms_320 cm) (%, volumetric water content).

The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The average soil temperature was rejected during February 16 to March 31 and April 15 to May 20 because of broken of the sensor line; Soil heat flux were wrong occasionally during November to December. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.

For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.


Data file naming and use method

Year+** observatory network+ site+ AWS


Required Data Citation View Data Cite Help About Data Citation
Citations

1. Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Wang, W.Z., Bai, J., Jia, Z., Zhu, M., &Wang, J.M. (2011). A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(4), 1291-1306.( View Details | Download )

2. Liu, S.M., Li, X., Xu, Z.W., Che, T., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Liu, Q.H., Jin, R., Guo, J.W., Wang, L.X., Wang, W.Z., Qi. Y., Li, H.Y., Xu, T.R., Ran, Y.H., Hu, X.L., Shi, S.J., Zhu, Z.L., Tan, J.L., Zhang, Y., &Ren, Z.G. (2018). The Heihe Integrated Observatory Network: A basin-scale land surface processes observatory in China. Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1), 180072.( View Details | Download )

Cite the data

LIU Shaomin, XU Ziwei, LI Xin, XU Ziwei. Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: Dataset of Heihe integrated observatory network (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of A’rou Superstation, 2018). National Tibetan Plateau Data Center, 2019. doi: 10.11888/Geogra.tpdc.270190. (Download the reference: RIS | Bibtex )

Using this data, you must reference article references listed in the Required Data Citation and reference data


References literature

1.Zhou, J., Li, M.S., Liu, S.M., Jia, Z.Z., &Ma, Y.F. (2015). Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. Remote Sensing, 7, 7126-7156. (View Details )

2.Wang, J.M., Zhuang, J.X., Wang, W.Z., Liu, S.M., &Xu, Z.W. (2015). Assessment of uncertainties in eddy covariance flux measurement based on intensive flux matrix of HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 259-263. (View Details )

3.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Zhang, X., Zhou, J., & Li, M.S. (2015). Estimating and Validating Soil Evaporation and Crop Transpiration During the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 334-338. (View Details | Download )

4.Xu, T.R., Bateni, S.M., & Liang, S.L. (2015). Estimating turbulent heat fluxes with a weak-constraint data assimilation scheme: A case study (HiWATER-MUSOEXE). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(1), 68-72. (View Details )

5.Zhang, L., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Qiao, C., &Jiang, G.Q. (2015). Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Ecosystems in the Zhangye Oasis Area, Northwest China. PLOS ONE, 10(6). (View Details )

6.Zhang, Q., Sun, R., Jiang, G.Q., Xu, Z.W., & Liu, S.M. (2016). Carbon and energy flux from a Phragmites australis wetland in Zhangye oasis-desert area, China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 45-57. (View Details | Download )

7.Xu, T.R., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Liang, S.L., &Xu, L. (2015). A dual-pass data assimilation scheme for estimating surface fluxes with FY3A-VIRR land surface temperature. Science China Earth Science, 58(2), 211-230. (View Details | Download )

8.Xu, Z.W., Liu, S.M., Li, X., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M., Zhu, Z.L., Xu, T.R., Wang, W.Z., &Ma, M.G. (2013). Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 13140-13157. (View Details | Download )

9.Song, L.S., Kustas, W.P., Liu, S.M., Colaizzi, P.D., Nieto, H., Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Li, M.S., Xu, T.R., Agam, N., Tolk, J.A., & Evett, S.R. (2016). Applications of a thermal-based two-source energy balance model using Priestley-Taylor approach for surface temperature partitioning under advective conditions. Journal of Hydrology, 540(540), 574-587. (View Details | Download )

10.Li, Y., Sun, R., &Liu, S.M. (2015). Vegetation Physiological Parameters Setting in the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) for alpine meadows in upper reaches of Heihe River. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(5), 755-769. (View Details )

11.Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Shi, S.J., &Wang, J.M. (2017). Assessment of the energy balance closure under advective conditions and its impact using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 127-140. (View Details | Download )

12.Qiao, C., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Zhang, L., Liu, L.Y., Hao, L.Y., &Jiang, G.Q. (2015). A study of shelterbelt transpiration and cropland evapotranspiration in an irrigated area in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 369-373. (View Details )

13.Hu, M.G., Wang, J.H., Ge, Y., Liu, M.X., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., &Xu, T.R. (2015). Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging. Atmosphere, 6(8), 1032-1044. (View Details | Download )

14.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., William Kustas, P., Zhou, J., &Ma, Y.F. (2015). Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data. Remote Sensing, 7(5), 5828-5848. (View Details | Download )

15.Bai, J., Jia, L., Liu, S., Xu, Z., Hu, G., Zhu, M., &Song, L. (2015). Characterizing the Footprint of Eddy Covariance System and Large Aperture Scintillometer Measurements to Validate Satellite-Based Surface Fluxes. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(5), 943-947. (View Details | Download )

16.Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Zhang, F., Zhou, J., &Jia, Z.Z. (2015). Estimations of regional surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous oasis-desert surfaces in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 671-675. (View Details )

17.Ge, Y., Liang, Y.Z., Wang, J.H., Zhao, Q.Y., &Liu, S.M. (2015). Upscaling sensible heat fluxes with area-to-area regression kriging. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 656-660. (View Details )

18.Gao, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Liu, S.M., Jin, R., Yang, G.C., &Tan, L. (2014). Estimating spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 32, 54-66. (View Details )

19.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Song, L.S., Zhao, Q.Y., Ge, Y., Xu, T.R., Ma, Y.F., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., &Zhang, F. (2016). Upscaling evapotranspiration measurements from multi-site to the satellite pixel scale over heterogeneous land surfaces. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 97-113. (View Details | Download )

20.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Kustas, W.P., Zhou, J., Xu, Z.W., Xia, T., & Li, M.S. (2016). Application of remote sensing-based two-source energy balance model for mapping field surface fluxes with composite and component surface temperatures. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 8-19. (View Details | Download )

21.Zhu, Z.L., Tan, L., Gao, S.G., &Jiao, Q.S. (2015). Oberservation on soil moisture of irrigated cropland by cosmic-ray probe. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 472-476. (View Details )

22.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., &Zhu, M.J. (2013). Measurements of evapotranspiration from eddy-covariance systems and large aperture scintillometers in the Hai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 487, 24-38. (View Details )

23.Xu, T., Liu, S., Xu, L., Chen ,Y., Jia, Z., Xu, Z., &Nielson, J. (2015). Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sensing, 7(3), 3400-3425. (View Details | Download )


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Keywords
Geographic coverage
Spatial coverage

East: 100.46

South: 38.05

West: 100.46

North: 38.05

Detail
  • Temporal resolution: Hourly
  • File size: 26.1 MB
  • Browse count: 116 Times
  • Download count: 10 Times
  • Share mode: offline
  • Temporal coverage: 2018-01-01 To 2018-12-31
  • Updated time: 2019-08-09
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Contact Information
: LIU Shaomin, XU Ziwei   LI Xin   XU Ziwei  

Distributor: National Tibetan Plateau Data Center

Email: data@itpcas.ac.cn

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